HANDBOOK OF AMHERST,
PREPARED AND PUBLISHED
FREDERICK H. HITCHCOCK,
EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND NINETY-ONE.
THE ILLUSTRATIONS IN THIS BOOK WERE MADE BY
THE BOSTON ENGRAVING COMPANY,
227 TREMONT STREET.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1891, by
FREDERICK H. HITCHCOCK,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
Typography by J. S. Gushing & Co., Boston. Presswork by Berwick & Smith, Boston.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST has been prepared in the hope of
affording its readers a comprehensive view of one of the most
attractive little towns of Western Massachusetts; and it is believed
to be the first attempt at combining in one volume the matters of
permanent interest to residents, strangers, and college students alike.
While the information, covering this broad field, is greatly con-
densed in order to produce a book of convenient size, no effort has
been spared to make it accurate, as well as complete in every
Other than that of being a " handbook," the volume has no pre-
tensions. With it as a guide, the visitor to Amherst can see every-
thing of any importance in the town and the surrounding country;
and to both residents and students it should prove a valuable
Without the assistance of many of the friends of the town and its
colleges, the publication of the book in its present form would not
have been possible. The names of all those who have aided in
gathering material, and in correcting the manuscript and proofs, can-
not be mentioned, but among them were : Dr. William S. Tyler,
President M. E. Gates, President H. H. Goodell, Dr. Edward
Hitchcock, William A. Dickinson, Esq., Professor Charles Wellington,
Professor W. P. Brooks, Charles O. Parmenter, and Rev. D. W.
IV INTR OD UC TION.
Marsh. To these and many others, whose suggestions have been
most valuable, cordial acknowledgments of their kindnesses are due.
The photographs, from which the large majority of the illustrations
were made, were the work of Mr. J. L. Lovell, of Amherst. A few
were furnished by Mr. H. N. Potter, of the class of 1891 in Am-
herst College, and by the Notman Photographic Company of Boston.
A number of the illustrations of scenes outside of Amherst, that
otherwise would not have been presented here, are loaned by Wade,
Warner & Co., of Northampton, from " Picturesque Hampshire." A
picture from the "92 Olio" is also used.
June, eighteen hundred and ninety-one.
AMHERST OF THE PAST I
THE HARTFORD REVOLT SETTLEMENT OF HADLEY A GLIMPSE AT
EARLY AMHERST A TOWN AT LAST WARS AND RUMORS OF WARS.
THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY 16
THE BEAUTY OF AN AUGUST DAY CHARACTERISTIC FLOWERS AND BIRDS
LITERATURE OF THE VALLEY ITS GEOLOGY A FEW HISTORICAL
A FEW DELIGHTFUL DRIVES 33
VIEWS FROM HOLYOKE CHARMING HADLEY THE " MEADOW ClTY"
BLOOD-STAINED DEERFIELD OTHER ATTRACTIVE PLACES.
AMHERST OF THE PRESENT 48
ITS SITUATION MATERIAL CONDITION GLIMPSES ALONG THE STREETS
OF THE VILLAGE NORTH AMHERST THE "Cnr" EAST STREET
AMHERST COLLEGE 87
A GLANCE AT ITS HISTORY THE COLLEGE OF THE PRESENT THE
SUMMER SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES A TOUR OF THE COLLEGE BUILDINGS
THE GREEK LETTER FRATERNITIES THEIR HOUSES.
THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE .161
HISTORICAL NOTES PRESENT CONDITIONS THE EXPERIMENT STATIONS
A GLANCE AT THE BUILDINGS.
NOTEWORTHY BUSINESS FIRMS 189
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Agricultural and Physical Laboratory, 183.
Alpha Delta Phi House, The Old, 137.
Alpha Delta Phi House, The New, 139.
Amherst, Jeffrey, First Lord, 9.
Amherst House, The, 57.
Appleton 'Cabinet ; Amherst College, 121.
Barrett Gymnasium, The, 124.
Belchertown Common, A View of, 45.
Beta Theta Pi House, The, 149.
Birthplace of Charles Dudley Warner at
Botanic Museum and Plant House, 185.
Bryant's Home at Cummington, 22.
Chapel and Dormitories, The; Amherst
Chapel and Library, The; Agricultural
Chemical Laboratory, The; Agricultural
Chi Phi House, The, 151.
College Church, The ; Amherst College, 115.
College Hall, 95.
Common, looking toward Amherst Col-
lege, The, 53.
Delta Kappa Epsilon House, The, 133.
Delta Upsilon House, The, 159.
Drill Hall, The ; Agricultural College, 163.
Elm Street in Hatfield, 38.
Ferry, A Picturesque, 32.
First Congregational Meeting-House and
Parsonage in 1788, 77.
First Congregational Church, 79.
First Victoria Regia grown without Arti-
ficial Heat, The, 43.
Fishing-Rod Factory, The, 40.
Flower Field at Pansy Park, A, 42.
Grace Episcopal Church, 61.
Grand Stand on Pratt Field, The, 129.
Glimpse of Smith College, A, 36.
Hatfield, Elm Street in, 38.
Henry T. Morgan Library, The ; Amherst
Huntington Estate, The, 37.
Insectary, The; Agricultural College, 187.
Jeffrey, First Lord Amherst, 9.
Laboratory Building, The ; Agricultural
Library, The Henry T. Morgan ; Amherst
Library, The Chapel and; Agricultural
Looking toward North Amherst, 39.
Main Street, Amherst, 71.
Map of Amherst, 49.
Mather Art Collection, The, 109.
Mill Valley, 75.
Mount Holyoke, 34.
Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, 47.
Mount Lincoln, The Tower on, 41.
Mount Pleasant House, 67.
Mount Warner, Looking toward, 17.
North Amherst Center, 83.
North College Dormitory, The ; Agricultu-
ral College, 175.
North Hadley, A Scene in, 19.
North Pleasant Street, 64.
Oak Grove School, 73.
Observatory, Woods Cabinet and; Amherst
Ox-Bow in 1840 and 1890, from Mount
Holyoke, The, 24.
Pansy Park, A Flower Field in, 42.
Phi Delta Theta House, The, 155.
Picturesque Ferry, A, 32.
Pond in Belchertown, The, 44.
Pratt Gymnasium, The, 119.
President's House, The; Amherst Col-
Psi Upsilon House, The, 143.
Russell Church and Elmwood House in
Hadley, The, 35.
Scene in North Hadley, A, 19.
Smith College, A Glimpse of, 36.
South Amherst Center, 85.
South College Dormitory, The ; Agricultu-
ral College, 171.
Theta Delta Chi House, The, 145.
" The Terrace," 69.
Town Hall, The, 65.
Tower on Mount Lincoln, The, 41.
Town from the College Chapel, The, 91.
View from the College Library, Amherst
View of Belchertown Common, A, 45.
Walker Hall, in.
West Street of Hadley, The, 27.
Williston Hall, 105.
Woods Cabinet and Observatory, 136.
AMHERST OF THE
THE HARTFORD REVOLT SETTLEMENT OF HADLEY
A GLIMPSE AT EARLY AMHERST A TOWN AT
LAST WARS AND RUMORS OF WARS.
7T MHERST was settled from the west. It lies among
^Y tne lower foot-hills of the Green Mountains, east
of old Hadley, of which it long formed a part. It
took one hundred years for the tide of English immigra-
tion to get less than one hundred miles inland from the
shores of Massachusetts Bay to Amherst. The movement,
like that of the Pilgrims through Holland to Plymouth
Rock, was roundabout, first southeastward, into the
State of Connecticut ; thence northward, along the river
to Hadley ; and finally eastward, involving the entrance
to Amherst from the west.
The original settlers, coming mainly from Hadley and
from Hatfield, then a part of Hadley, were nearly all the
descendants of the earliest Hadley settlers. Their ancestors, with few
exceptions, had come from England to Massachusetts Bay between 1631
and 1635, an d finding near the shore less land and less freedom than
they wished, sent explorers, in 1633, by land and water to the Con-
necticut River. In 1635 an d l6 3 6 tnev moved through the wilderness
to the fertile valley, settling at Wethersfield and Hartford. There they
remained for almost a generation, until religious disputes in 1759 and
1 760 led a part of the body to move to Hadley.
2 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
It is interesting to look back upon the principles which caused the
division of the Connecticut settlements. The differences at Hartford
occasioning the up-river movement sprang largely from divergent theo-
ries of government. The friends of Rev. John Hooker, known in England
as the light of the western churches, sought to obtain a larger personal
liberty denied them at Hartford. The first lecture of this good man at
Hartford sounded a note that should never be forgotten in the history
of liberty in Massachusetts and Connecticut, and it foreshadowed in a
wonderful manner the truths which lay at the basis of the Federal
government founded more than a century later.
On a Thursday, the ist of May, 1638, his text was, "Take you wise
men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make
them rulers over you " (Deut. i. 13). He laid down " Doctrine i. That
the choice of the public magistrates belongs unto the people by God's
own allowance. 2. The privilege of election which belongs to the
people, therefore, must be exercised not according to their humors, but
according to the blessed will and law of God. 3. They who have power
to appoint officers and magistrates, it is their power also to set bounds
and limitations of the power and place to which they call them." And
he gave as reasons : " i . Because the foundation of authority is laid
firstly in the free consent of the people. 2. Because, by a free choice,
the hearts of the people will be more inclined to the laws of the persons,
and more ready to yield."
On such broad principles were the early inhabitants of the Connecticut
Valley nurtured, and such principles were especially cherished by the
parents and grandparents of the first settlers of Amherst.
Sixty-eight years intervened between the occupation of Hadley in
1659 and the settlement of Amherst, although the lands of the latter
place were more elevated, lay but four miles away, and were within the
boundaries of the town.
The history of Hadley's own " Middle Street " makes this fact not at
all surprising. It was not occupied for fifty-three years after the " West
Street," and in 1720 it had only twenty families. The lots were first
laid out by vote of the town in 1684. In 1687 most of them were given
to inhabitants of the town on condition that they build within three
years. An Indian war breaking out the following year, no one dared
live outside of the fortifications ; and the grants had to be renewed in
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 3
1690 and 1692, only to be further delayed in their settlement by the
French and Indian War until 1713.
In addition to the motive of personal safety, the wish to be near the
common meeting-house, and to perpetuate the home and village life of
England, did much to influence the people to move, when they did
move, in large rather than in small bodies. The flow of population
from England was checked about that time, thus retarding the growth
of the colonies away from the seacoast.
It is very clear that the Hadley settlers did not realize the value of
the land lying at a distance from the river. They complained in 1673
that most of their woodland was a " barren pine-plain, capable of very
little improvement," and accordingly their boundaries were widened by
the General Court so as to " run five miles up the river and five miles
down the river and six miles from their meeting-house eastward." This
grant gave them all the land now included in the town of Amherst, but
ten years after they begged for more, saying that " the inhabitants are
shut up on the east and north by a desolate and barren desert," and
" the young people are straightened for want of enlargement and remove
to remote places " rather than live in Amherst. This petition brought
them in May, 1683, an addition four miles square between Hadley and
Springfield, extending eastward from the Connecticut River. It proved
useless to them during the Indian wars, and was not even surveyed
The following vote, passed by the town of Hadley on tke 4th of
March, 1 700, may still be deciphered in the old record-book, and it
shaped for all time the positions of the main streets and the lots of
Amherst, then known as East Hadley :
" Voted by the town, that three miles and one-quarter eastward from the meeting-
house, and so from the north side of Mount Holyoke unto Mill River, shall lye as
common lands forever, supposing that the line will take in the new swamp.
" Voted, that the rest of the commons, eastward, shall be laid out in three divisions,
that is to say, between the road leading to Brookfield, and the Mill River, notwith-
standing there is liberty for the cutting of wood and timber so long as it lieth
unfenced ; there is likewise to be left between every division forty rods for highways,
and what will be necessary to be left for highways eastward and West through every
division, is to be left to the discretion of the measurers ; and every one to have a
proportion in the third division, and every householder to have a ^50 allotment and
all others who are now the proper inhabitants of Hadley, 16 years old and upward,
to have a ^25 allotment in said commons."
4 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
Rendered into language that is more intelligible at the present day,
this vote meant to reserve forever as common property the tract of land
lying between Mount Holyoke on the south, and Mill River on the
north, and extending from the "West Street" of Hadley eastward to a
north and south line three and a quarter miles from the meeting-house,
then standing in the middle of the street. The land east of this " Inner
Commons," the present Amherst, was to be divided into three sections
separated by highways running north and south, which are now repre-
sented by Pleasant and East streets, and these to be intersected by
cross-streets, running east and west.
Things moved slowly in those days, and it was three years later
May, 1 703 when the town measurers announced that the instructions
of the vote had been carried out. Portions of East Hadley were allotted
to individuals, whether they became settlers or remained in the old
street, and the same names occur in the record of this division of
land as may be found in the later division of South Hadley. The allot-
ments were not made so much for immediate settlement as to allow
the separate ownership of wood, pasture, and swamp lands, and most
of those who were given lots never intended to reside upon them. So
it was not until 1727 or 1728 that the new territory began to be occu-
pied, although tradition relates that a hardy woodsman named Foote
attempted unsuccessfully to live by fishing and trapping near what is
known as " East Street." For years that portion of the town lying just
north of .the Second Congregational meeting-house had the name of
" Foote's Folly Swamp."
The three divisions of East Hadley are plainly indicated to-day by
the two north and south roads, of which the village common and the
East Street common are parts. Both of these highways, originally forty
rods wide, have been narrowed from time to time as the roadways
became improved, and there was less need of making detours to avoid
the hummocks and treacherous mud- holes which first rendered trav-
elling sinuous. Recent measurements made for The Handbook of
Amherst locate this west highway as lying between the stone carriage
block in front of the Amherst House on Amity Street and the residence
of H. B. Edwards on Lessey Street. The present position of Amity
Street is nearly that of the middle one of the three cross-highways laid
out in the same width. In 1754, Hadley reduced the west street to
twenty rods' width, and the east street to twelve, and a large part of the
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 5
business of the precinct meetings for fifteen years from 1767 to 1782
was to discontinue parts of these broad highways.
. The first of the three divisions was bounded by the line, " three miles
and one-quarter from the Meeting-house," at Hadley and the west
street, now Pleasant Street ; the second division lay between the west
and east streets, and the third extended a mile from the east street to
the Pelham hills. The first two were two hundred and forty rods wide,
and all stretched from the Bay road on the south to the Mill River on
the north. Ninety-seven persons received lots in either the first or the
second divisions, and all were given sections in the third for pasture
The first authentic record that the grants of land in East Hadley had
been occupied is in the vote of Hadley, January 5, 1730, to lay out an
acre of land for a cemetery for the " east inhabitants," who are known to
have numbered at that time eighteen families. The names of these
early settlers are John Ingram, Sr., John Ingram, Jr., Ebenezer Kellogg,
John Cowls, Jonathan Cowls, Samuel Boltwood, Samuel Hawley, Na-
thaniel Church, John Wells, Aaron Smith, Nathaniel Smith, Richard
Chauncey, Stephen Smith, John Nash, Jr., Joseph Wells, Ebenezer
Scovil, Ebenezer Ingram, Ebenezer Dickinson. Twelve of these men
came from Hadley, and the others from Hatfield.
The first step toward the separation of the two settlements was taken
in 1733, when Hadley voted that the " east inhabitants have a part of
their taxes abated upon their hiring a minister of their own," previous to
this every one being obliged to make the journey to the meeting-house
at old Hadley for Sabbath worship. The parishes were finally divided
by an act of the General Court, December 31, 1734, making East Had-
ley the " Third Precinct " of Hadley on the condition of its settling a
"learned orthodox minister," and erecting a meeting-house. The
decree of the General Court bounded the new precinct, it " Being of
the contents of two miles and three-quarters in breadth, and seven
miles in length, bounded Westerly on a tract of land reserved by the
town of Hadley, to lye as common forever, Southerly on Boston road,
Easterly on Equivalent lands, and Northerly on the town of Sunderland."
While the church affairs of the precinct thus became distinct from
those of the parent village, town business was still transacted in the
original settlement, and the town officers were almost entirely from that
6 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
The first minister of the Third Precinct, the Rev. David Parsons, who
was born at Maiden, began his labors in November, 1735, settling per-
manently four years later, when he was given money and land for
building a house, and was promised ^100 salary, with an increase in
proportion to the growth of the population. The meeting-house begun
in 1 738 was located upon the site of the present college Observatory,
and, although not completed until 1753, was occupied some time prior
to 1742. The history of this First Congregational Church is traced at
some length in another portion of this book. It suffices to say here
that its development and growth were parallel with the development and
growth of the town, the paths diverging only when later religious differ-
ences resulted in the establishment of the Second Parish, and the town,
as a political body, discontinued its support of public worship.
In 1739 Oliver Partridge resurveyed the town of Hadley, determining
what still remains the eastern boundary of Amherst. He followed the
provisions of the grant to Hadley in 1673, finding the point exactly six
miles east of the old meeting-house, and running by compass a north
and south line through it. The first surveyors had done their work
without a compass, but they were in reality more accurate than Partridge,
for the magnetic variation changed the line so that the lots in the
southern part of the third division were widened considerably, while
those at the north were narrowed. To offset this loss of territory, the
town allowed about six hundred acres on the Flat Hills to those who
had suffered by the relocation of the line.
The Third Precinct of Hadley sent its share of men to the Indian wars
that raged intermittently up and down the beautiful valley of the Con-
necticut between the years of 1744 and 1763. Many brave men were
sacrificed, but among those surviving, several gained the prominence and
ability that placed them at the front at the opening of the Revolutionary
The year 1 749 finds the first indication that the settlement is alive to
the necessity of providing the rising generation with opportunities for
gaining some education. Appropriations, liberal for the times, were
made " to Hire three School Dames for three or four Months in the
Summer seson to Larne children to read." The pupils met at the
teachers' homes, for there were no school-houses until after 1 764, when
four were ordered to be built, a " North, a South, a West Middle, and a
South East Middle." Josiah Pierce began to teach October 27, 1765.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 7
He was the first school-master, and spent part of the year at each of the
" Middle " school-houses. A graduate of Harvard College, he was paid
$5.33 a month, adding to this by keeping an evening school, and preach-
ing at the churches of the surrounding places for twenty shillings a Sun-
day. It is not at all surprising that " he dismissed his school in disgust
March 29, 1769," as the records have it. The school-house of this
hard-working pedagogue stood upon the village common near the spot
now marked by the watering- trough. In 1 784 Amherst voted " to set
up six schools." It is interesting to notice that before Amherst College
had graduated a single student, thirty-nine Amherst boys had obtained
degrees, thirteen from Williams, ten from Dartmouth, seven from Yale,
and three from Harvard.
Owing to the incorporation of South Hadley as a district in 1753, the
name " East Hadley " was changed to the " Second Precinct of Had-
ley," and six years later, just a century after the founding of Hadley, the
" Second Precinct " was made a district. Governor Pownell, in signing
the act of incorporation, February 13, 1 759, gave it the name of Amherst,
in honor of General Jeffrey Amherst, prominent at that time as the com-
mander of the memorable expedition against Louisburg, and still later
as commander-in-chief and field marshal of the English armies. In
1776 General Amherst was created a baron.
The new district held its first legal meeting March 19, 1759. From
that time on, the spirit of independence and thrift seemed to take a
firmer hold upon the people. They toiled diligently for the betterment
of their estates, laying aside the generous store of English money
that was to prove so useful during the hard times of the approach-
Much of the public business previously centering exclusively in the
mother settlement was transferred to Amherst, with the beneficial results
always attending an interest in home affairs. In 1758 the white popu-
lation actually outnumbered that of Hadley, and in 1776 had become
some two hundred greater than in any of the surrounding villages.
Nearly all the material conditions of the district surpassed those of the
three villages which originally belonged to Hadley.
Regular communication was opened with Boston in 1767 by the enter-
prise of Simeon Smith, an Amherst citizen. Previous to that time all
travelling had been done on horseback ; but Smith possessed a wagon
that is recorded as being strong enough to bear a ton of freight. He
8 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
made a trip, by way of the old Bay road, in about a week, and found
sufficient trade to bring him a good profit, the most remunerative part
of his business being the importation of great quantities of New England
Youthful Amherst was not without its " ordinaries," or taverns, even
in the days of its smallest population. Ebenezer Kellogg was licensed
in 1734, .as the first ordinary- keeper. He kept his place for only three
years, but within the next few years his successors were so numerous
that a record of them would be wearisome. At the time he opened his
tavern, the men of the town numbered twenty-nine, and only three
hundred and fifty acres of land had been cleared and improved. One
groggery for every sixty persons, the records say, was the proportion in
1 783, when there were seven hundred inhabitants.
All this time the residents on the outskirts of the district had been
journeying several miles each Sabbath day to attend church services in
the village. In 1772 they united in advocating a division of the origi-
nal parish so that the north and south sections of the district should
each have a church, the one in the centre to be discontinued. The
same instincts that influence men to-day were no less active then, and
the prospect of having their place of worship removed to an inconven-
ient distance so alarmed the villagers that they begged the General
Court to interfere in the matter. Their petition was an able document.
The records show that a committee from the august body of legislators
visited Amherst in March, 1774, but their report and the entire question
was soon forgotten in the excitement of the war immediately following.
Church matters did not become prominent again until 1781. A part of
the parish withdrew in accordance with a vote passed October 15, 1782,
and constituted themselves the Second Congregational Parish. They
had opposed the selection of Rev. David Parsons, Jr., to succeed his
father as pastor, but were overruled by the majority. The incorporation
of this new parish marked the end of the control of religious affairs by
Amherst assumed the privileges of a town about this time by electing
Nathaniel Dickinson, Jr., a representative to the Provincial Congress,
which met successively at Salem, Concord, and Cambridge. The name
of "town," used without authority in the records after 1776, was legal-
ized by a general law of the State in 1876.
Amherst must have proved a warm place for the Tories of the Revo-
JEFFREY, FIRST LORD AMHERST,
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. II
lutionary times. The character of the American ancestry of the early
settlers of Hadley and Amherst, especially of that from Hartford, would
lead one to expect to find men ready to stand up for freedom and
human rights at the risk of life and property. With most of the men
of Amherst this was true, but, as in not a few cases elsewhere, the highly
educated classes were more loyal to the king of England and opposed
to the popular idea of freedom, than the body of the people. The
names of these opponents of the war included many of the leading
citizens, at the head of whom was no less a personage than the
Rev. David Parsons, Sr. Besides censuring and even imprisoning
several .of these obnoxious persons for being " notoriously inimical to
American liberty," the town voted to support whatever action the
Continental Congress might take for the safety of the colonies, and
in January, 1776, actually deprived those "not owning independence
of the crown of Great Britain " of the right of voting upon town
Even if former leaders be lukewarm and hostile at the time of a
revolution in thought or action, the people find new men to go before
them in the paths they are determined to tread. It was so at Amherst.
Men less polished than collegians, some of them diamonds in the rough,
some profane, came to the front in place of the more accomplished
Royalist scholars and gentlemen.
These men entered into correspondence with the Committee of Cor-
respondence at Boston. Having " Red and Considered " the letter
from Boston, they voted, March 14, 1774, to send a reply. Their letter
was not a triumph of spelling or oratory, but it was a mine of sturdy
sense. They had no more respect for capitals than for kings. One
may not forget that Noah Webster and his spelling-book had not yet
appeared, and often in the antique dress of the letters of the time there
is something so grotesque as to cause a smile ; but one feels, when
reading the quaint spelling, much as did Dr. Holmes at the sight of the
old man, in " The Last Leaf" :
" I know it is a sin
For me to sit and grin
At him here;
But the old three-cornered hat,
And the breeches, and all that,
Are so queer."
12 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
But, after all, our own spelling is unreasonable, and the letter of the
patriots is too earnest for more than momentary merriment. This is
what they wrote :
" To the Respectable Committee of Correspondence in the town of Boston.
" Gentn. : We think it needless to Recapitulate all those grievancses Which we
suffer in Common with our opprest Brethren and Neighbors. Sufficient to Say that
tho we' have been Long silent we are not insensible of the oppressions we suffer and
the ruin which threatens us or regardlis of the Diabolical Designs of our Mercenary
and Manevolent Enemies Foreign- and Domestic and are ready not onley to risque
but even to Sacrifice our Lives and Properties in Defence of our just rights & liberties
at Present we are only Galled not subdued and think ourselves heapy in having such
vigilant and faithfull gardians of our rights in the Metropolis on hoom we Can Depend
to Call on us in Season to unite with our suffering Countrymen in the Common Cause
of America we hope and beg that you will Still Persevere in that most Honorrble &
importent Imployment of watching over us with the Same Care and Fidelity which
has hitherto Distinguish,d & grately Dignified your Characters in the Estimation of
all who have a just sence of that best of Blessings Liberty & an Equal abhorence of
that tame submition which tends to Entail on our Posterrity that worst of Curses
" Every Avenue to the Royal Ear seems to be blocked up by the gross falsities &
Designd Misrepresentations of those from sum of whom at Least we might have
Expected better things but there is a King who Cannot be Deceived & who will not
be mocked who has pointed out a never failing resource when Petitions & Remon-
stances, Truth & justice are unsuccessfully opposed to Tironey and Oppression fals-
hood & Corruption & when you feel that impulse which will not brook longer Delay,
the wisdum of the People will naturally write in mode of the best Appeal, to which
you most Distant Brethren Expect to be summoned unless prevent,d by a sudding
unexpected & very favourable Chandge of affears. their are whom Justice forbids to
live but whom we would spare to Convince the world we Despise their utmost hate
& malicious Cunning, the Colonies united are invinciably free & we dout not you
are Convinc,d that the Preservation of that union outweighs every other Considera-
tion and is at Present our most Important Concern, while that is secure we have
nothing to fear but may Laugh at all attempts to Enslave us we know of no punish-
ment which Can be Inflicted on those vilens in Exalted Stations adequate to their
own reflections & remorse accompanyd with our Neglect, Contempt & Detestation
but at the same time should think ourselves happier if Everey banefull Noxious weed
Could by aney means be Eradicated from this our fair garden of Liberty, we Entirely
approve & Concurr with you in every measure hitherto adopted & Conducted & return
our gratefull thanks to the People of Boston & the Neighboring towns in a Perticuler
manner for the seasonable Indeavours & mandley opposition to prevent the Landing
of the East India Companys teas which plan we are Convinc,d was artefully Projected
to open the gate for the admition of Tyrany & oppression with all their Rapacious
followers to Stalk at Large & uncontrol,d to Ravage our fare & Dear bought Posses-
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 13
sions. Everey measure which shall appear Conducive to the Publick good we are
warranted to assure you will always be approved & support,d by a Large Majorrity in
this District and [y?]our Continual Correspondence as Long as you shall think occa-
tion requires meet with Due respect & attention we are in behalf of the District very
" your oblig'd & most hble, servts
Their actions fully sustained their words. The usual committees of
" Correspondence," " Safety," and " Inspection " were chosen, and
among the members were many who figured prominently in the affairs
of the colonies. A representative was sent to the Provincial Congress,
and in June, 1776, it was voted "That, should the Honorable Congress
for the safety of the United Colonies in America ; Declare them Inde-
pendant of the Kingdom of Great Britain ; we the inhabitants of the
town of Amherst solemnly engage with our lives and fortunes to support
them in the measure."
Following April 19, 1775, Captain Reuben Dickinson gathered a com-
pany of minute-men, who were under his call between two and four
weeks, and at their disbanding he enlisted an eight-months company, of
which the noted Daniel Shays of Shutesbury, the leader of the " Shays'
Rebellion," was a non-commissioned officer. Amherst men joined other
companies in varying numbers. A company under the command of
Captain James Hendrick of Amherst obtained a good many. Captain
Dickinson's command, and several of the others having men from the
town, were at the battle of Bunker Hill.
Later companies gathered by Captain Dickinson, Captain Harvey,
and Captain Cook, from Amherst and the vicinity, were in General
Gates' army, fought in the battles of September 19 and October 7, 1777,
and saw the surrender of General Burgoyne. Half of the English army
and the defeated general himself, passed through Hadley and along the
Bay road, then the southern boundary line of the town, on their way to
Boston. To this day one of the old families of Hadley are in possession
of a sword presented by General Burgoyne to one of the citizens of the
14 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
During the campaigns of 1777 until 1781, Amherst furnished its due
proportion of men, distributed through several companies, and in many
instances brave and efficient officers. Liberal bounties, formally offered
by the town to the enlisting men, rapidly drained the store of hard
money that had been laid up by the thrifty farm folk. The Continental
bills depreciated in value until in 1780 a dollar in silver would buy a
hundred of them, and a year after two hundred. Old soldiers boasted
after the hard times were over, that $50 had often been paid for a single
The first of the rewards of the courage, with which each new depriva-
tion of the war had been met, came, when the inhabitants of the town
assembled on the 4th day of September, 1780, bringing in their votes
for a governor of the new commonwealth, as follows : " The Hon'ble
John Hancock Esq'r, Forty three ; The Hon'ble James Bowdoin Esq'r
In the State convention which ratified the Federal Constitution, the
Amherst representative, Daniel Cooley, probably reflected the wishes of
his constituents when he voted against ratification. There were several
years about this time when the town failed to send its representatives to
the General Court, and at least twice it was fined for this neglect.
An interesting description of the town in 1800 has been given in Dr.
Tyler's able " History of Amherst College." At that time the only store
in the village stood at the corner of what afterward became Phoenix
Row and North Pleasant Street. At the opposite end of the row was
the house later occupied by Noah Webster. A vigorous distillery stood
within the square bounded by the Common and Spring and College
streets, entirely at variance, happily be it said, with the present ideas of
sobriety. The situation of the home of Levi Cowles, on North Pleasant
Street, and of Mrs. Emerson, the Judge Strong estate, mark the former
width of the two highways, for these buildings are among the few then
In 1814 eight hundred acres of Hadley were added at the northwest
corner of the town, and in 1815 the southern boundary was changed
from the Bay road to the top of the Holyoke range. At this time there
were not more than twenty-five houses in the village. Until several
years after the college was founded the centre of trade and enterprise
was at East Amherst, and there the town-meetings were held.
Amherst became prominent in 1787 through Shays' Rebellion, which
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 15
took place almost within her own borders. The deluded soldiery, under
Daniel Shays, encamped and drilled upon the Pelham hills, and return-
ing from their rash attempts to defy the Federal authority at Springfield
and Northampton, were followed by the regular troops across the south-
ern part of the town to the Pelham hills again, whence they dispersed
To the War of 1812 the inhabitants of Amherst were bitterly opposed.
Three citizens were sent to a convention of delegates from the towns of
Hampshire County, and the memorial then adopted strongly solicited
the Federal government to come to some terms of peace with Great
Britain. Notwithstanding this, the demand for troops that came later
was promptly met by Amherst, as well as the other towns of the
The War of the Rebellion sacrificed the lives of fifty-eight of the
three hundred and seventy-four volunteers from Amherst ; and the
expenses, public and private, amounted to more than 46,000.
1 6 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY.
BY MABEL LOOMIS Tonn.
THE BEAUTY OF AN AUGUST DAY CHARACTERISTIC FLOWERS
AND BIRDS LITERATURE OF THE VALLEY ITS GEOLOGY-
A FEW HISTORICAL GLIMPSES.
THE mellow light of a warm August afternoon lay shimmering over
a grassy meadow road. No fences divided the rich farm lands on
either side from the road, or from one another. The hum and
buzz of innumerable insects filled the fragrant air, while distant sounds
of mowing could be heard at intervals, as the rowan was being here
and there gathered in by thrifty farmers.
Nearer at hand fields of tropical-leaved tobacco sent out a slightly
pungent odor, while an occasional tall stalk, crowned with its delicate
pink blossoms, was allowed to ripen and go to seed in the summer
In the eyes of two travellers, driving leisurely along this lovely way,
the whole scene was richly, sensuously delightful. As they passed the
fields of tobacco and of corn, a dull but continuous murmur became
apparent, growing louder, until a large barn came into view, from which
the sound emerged. Here a curious, and in this day somewhat unusual,
sight appeared. Heavy machinery was cutting into small pieces and
packing into great compressed masses the succulent cornstalks, future
food for cattle when this verdant meadow should be filled with snow
and ice. In other words, ensilage was in process of manufacture.
Farther on, fields of broom-corn, with airily waving tassels, bordered the
highway. And everywhere were farmhouses with generous barns, large
orchards in which early apples began to show sun-warmed cheeks, and
old elms full of dignity and grace. Toward the west flowed a noble
river, not less than eight hundred feet wide, reflecting the sky on its
placid surface. Still further west, ranges of misty blue hills filled the
distance, while nearer rose Mount Warner, the pioneer of all that ancient
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. I/
In the south lay the rugged and picturesque Holyoke range, and the
steep sides of Mount Tom beyond the opening where the river has
scooped its passage. Northward, Mount Toby showed itself in a lumi-
nous, purple atmosphere, a rich tone modified in Sugarloaf, across the
river, by its more scarred sides of red sandstone. The gentle slope
of the Pelham and Shutesbury hills eastward was densely green, and
but little colored by distance.
Over all this homelike scene the caressing August sky and sunshine
brooded tenderly. Where, indeed, could they find a fairer tarrying- place ?
Looking toward Mount Warner.
This lovely Connecticut Valley originally the Quon-eh-ti-cut, promi-
nent in four States, no less than twenty miles wide in Massachusetts, the
garden-spot of New England, rich, fertile, and beautiful is full of
interest to the geologist, the naturalist, and the historian, as well as
to him who merely appreciates the rare beauty of its scenery, or the
promise of its luxuriant crops.
Pre-eminently a farming region, the valley has also many manufac-
turing interests, as Holyoke, Springfield, and its other cities amply testify.
But its pastoral character remains, and the beauty of its sweet meadows
is as yet untouched.
1 8 THE HANDBOOK OF AM PIER ST.
Many types of old- New England houses abound. Hadley, Deerfield,
and some of the earlier villages still preserve the colonial shapes and
ornaments, the fan-lights above the doors, and the old hip and gambrel
roofs. Somewhat later, a far less beautiful style came into vogue. The
hall, instead of running straight-forwardly through the centre of the house,
giving ample room for stairways, became contracted to a mere entrance
lobby, barely large enough to contain a door into the rooms on either
side, while a steep and narrow stairway was forced to contort itself cruelly
in order to rise at all. These houses, however, have large, though low-
ceiled rooms, and frequently, parlor cupboards in the wainscoted wall,
large fireplaces, and elaborately carved window and door ornaments.
Still later, came the first " modern " white, green-blinded country house
with a side wing. A single path generally leads to the rarely used front
door, diverging just before reaching its chilling hospitality into a branch
walk to the more homelike side door, where all is cheerful and merry,
where family life surges in and out over the stone doorstep, and hens
peck contentedly about the short grass. Yet another style of farm-
house appears, whose long row of sheds and out-buildings reaches to an
astonishing distance, terminating in an immense barn by which the
modest and insignificant dwelling is completely overshadowed.
Sturdy and pious as the earlier inhabitants were, steadfast of purpose,
and of noble lives, their aesthetic sense must have been very much in
abeyance. Too sadly common is the fashion in this fair region, where
Nature spreads her most tempting glories, of setting an uncompromising
barn directly between the house and a wonderful view of mountain and
vale which any summer tourist would go miles to see for an hour.
The inoffensive little house is perhaps perched close to the highway,
and directly across the road, in its face and eyes, rises the dignified
shelter of cattle and hay, shutting off all possible outlook.
The age of the mansard roof infliction is still apparent; but later
taste has displaced its ugliness, and smooth, well-kept lawns now often
lead to charming houses of our own day, which, while preserving the
best features of early colonial architecture, have added without and
within the beauty of a more cultured and many-sided life.
Very rich in flowers, ferns, and mosses is this favored valley. In late
spring the shady roads are lighted by the pale pink of the laurel, set in
its dark green leaves ; and earlier, arbutus, hepaticas, anemones, and all
the brave company of early blossoms fill the woods. Columbine and
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 21
cowslips, wild azalia, scarlet " painted-cup " and pimpernel, loose strife,
meadow-lilies, yellow and scarlet, give place to hosts of wild roses and
clematis, while yet later come cardinal flowers and closed gentians, the
tiny five-leaved gentian and its royal fringed brother, brilliant black-
alder berries glowing in the sun ; and last of all the weird witch-hazel holds
sway in the bare November woods, companioned by airy ghosts from the
milkweed pots, and spectral maiden-hair, white in its secluded recesses.
"The murmuring of bees has ceased,
But murmuring of some
Has simultaneous come,"
" Besides the autumn poets sing,
A few prosaic days
A little this side of the snow,
And that side of the haze.
"Still is the bustle in the brook,
Sealed are the spicy valves,
Mesmeric fingers softly touch
The eyes of many elves."
A merely technical list of all the floral beauties of the region would
fill a goodly volume. Professor Tuckerman's catalogue of the lichens
shows their rare variety and number, and the ferns are no less noteworthy.
Partridges drum undisturbed in their leafy homes, the rarer quail is
still a resident, and the meadows and mountain-sides echo to the songs
of numberless wild birds.
Song-sparrows and bluebirds greet with throbbing music the early
spring, after the longest and coldest winter has failed to drive the ener-
getic bluejay from his covert in pine or hemlock, whence comes his
" brigadier " note, with all its harshness full of cheer and hopefulness.
The rose-breasted grosbeak, the pewees, the flaming orioles, the bobo-
link and meadow-lark, the humming-bird and linnet, the cat-bird with
its lovely song, the various swallows with their startlingly swift flight, the
sweet-voiced vireos and warblers, all, and a numerous brotherhood
beside, fill the crevices of every fragrant spring and summer day with
their flashing wings and tender songs, voicing the winds and the woods
and the waters in sweetest melody. The rare red-necked grebe, the
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
snowy heron, and the night heron have been seen in the region, as well
as the yellow-rail, the blue golden-winged warbler, and the yellow-
About one hundred and thirty years ago a few elms were set out here
and there. Some of these pioneers still survive ; but in general, atten-
tion to ornamental trees has been given within the present century.
The old-time Lombardy poplar, with its stiffly sentinel aspect, and its
Bryant's Home at Cummington.
shimmering, silvery leaves, was introduced at one time, but its repre-
sentatives were generally cut down after a few years, and few now
remain to give their stately dignity to any old homestead. The dis-
tinctive trees of this grassy, sunny Connecticut Valley are undoubtedly
its elms. Their graceful branches appear in nearly all of the paintings
of the region, and wave across the pages of the valley literature. And
it has been prominent in literature since the early days, from Jonathan
Edwards in his Northampton home, to the gentler if less profound
philosophy of Bryant, whose " Story of the Fountain " might well have
been told of the far-away spring of our noble river.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 2$
Bryant's home in Cummington was one of his two favorite spots for
writing his poems. His journalistic labors in New York were ever kept
distinct from his deeply loved country life, where alone he would express
himself in verse. The names of George Bancroft, Henry Ward Beecher,
and George William Curtis belong to the valley ; and Dr. J. G. Holland,
born in Belchertown, wrote of the region in " Kathrina," and " The Bay
Path." Charles Dudley Warner remembers it in some of his daintiest
sketches ; and here, too, linger memories of Jenny Lind, whose com-
pelling voice comes floating down the years in the traditions of a previous
generation. More lately, George W. Cable's increasing fame adorns
the Connecticut ; while to Amherst
belongs the world-wide reputation
Birthplace of Charles Dudley Warner at Plainfield.
of " H. H.," and the posthumous fame of Emily Dickinson and her
strange, strong poems.
To the geologist, ten thousand years seem but a step. From evidences
about Amherst and Northampton he assigns this length of time, " one of
the shortest estimates," as the probable interval since the glacial period.
In that age, misty and remote enough to the layman, the ice, covering
all this region, furrowed deeply into the sandstone, particularly north of
the Holyoke range, largely forming its bold and rugged outline ; it
piled together other masses into rough hills, leaving in its path bowlders
and clay and the stony soil so characteristic of New England.
When this mass of ice, beginning to yield to the oncoming of a more
genial age, melted in the sun, a great lake was formed, whose height
was three hundred feet above the sea, and two hundred feet above pres-
ent low water in the Connecticut River. Its shores were the present
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
boundaries of the valley. The surface of the ground over which we
drive in the mellow August weather, listening to the peaceful farming
sounds on every hand, was the actual bottom of this great prehistoric
lake, in whose clays an abundant glacial flora has been found.
There is evidence that the lake speedily shrunk to almost the present
size of the river. This " Nile of New England " has gradually deposited
the rich alluvial meadows, its chief wealth and beauty.
Swinging through past centuries in other curves than now, it has
formed seven great " ox-bows," cut-
ting off subsequently all but the
famous one, so distinctly seen from
The Ox-Bow in 1840 and 1890, from Mount Holyoke.
the summit of Mount Holyoke. Two
of the others are found to have dis-
appeared only since the settlement of the valley. Three of the seven
were in Hatfield, and four in Northampton.
Ages before even the oncoming of the ice period, earthquakes and
volcanic explosions carved our valley into a semblance of its present
shape. Filled with waters from the sea, a narrow inlet or fjord to a
height above the level of Mount Holyoke, it endured through triassic
Streams sweeping into the basin deposited sand and gravel flats. In
these mud shores, animals long extinct and unimaginable made a huge
procession of footprints since hardened into stone. These have been
discovered, preserved, and described by the late President Hitchcock of
Amherst College. Traces of reptiles, insects, fishes, and colossal frogs
THE HAXDBOOK OF AMHERST. 25
are here found, and also the enormous prints of birds whose size, to
correspond with their tracks, must have been at least five times that of
the ostrich. These bird-tracks occur in thirty places through the Con-
necticut Valley, between the upper strata. Into the late discussions of
whether these great creatures with feet eighteen or twenty inches long
were birds or not rather some unknown, three-toed animal we cannot
enter. It is for us enough to know that the stupendous procession has
been made to live again by the untiring genius of an enthusiast to whom
we owe the resurrection of a long-vanished past ; and bird or animal,
" strange indeed, is this menagerie of remote sandstone days."
From this weird occupancy of antediluvian monsters to the days when
the Agawams and other Indian tribes lived their nomadic and warlike
lives in the fair vale, is a long step for a tense imagination.
Here, however, they were found ; for how many years they had been
here, or whence their pioneers may have come, cannot be certainly
proven. But in 1631 the Connecticut first became known to our own
forefathers. Early in the autumn of 1633 four men from Dorchester
first visited its banks. Later, William Pynchon and his little band of
followers, chiefly planters from Roxbury, came by the famous " Bay
Path " through a hundred miles of forest to what is now the city of
An absorbing piety characterized these early settlements, as it had the
original ones on the coast ; and a " meeting-house " was an earliest care.
The first framed house was erected by Mr. Pynchon ; and deeds for the
various allotments of land, the first ever executed in Western Massachu-
setts, were drawn up whereby a formal purchase was secured from the
Indians, who held from Nature herself a dateless and unwritten title.
In all the early settlements it is a pleasant reflection that these legiti-
mate purchases were always made with the wild but original owners.
Northampton was subsequently settled, its rich meadow land proving
very attractive. In 1654 measures were taken here also to build and
establish a meeting-house. What means of calling the settlers together
for worship may have been employed is not certainly known. While in
Springfield this important instrument was a drum, it is believed that a
large and sonorous cow-bell was first used in Northampton. Later, a
salary is recorded as being paid for services in " blowing the trumpet,"
presumably for the same purpose.
In 1659 about fifty settlers established the town of Hadley, its mag-
26 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
nificent street twenty rods wide still bearing evidence to the good taste
and forethought of those who planned the village. The name of Hadley
was not given until two years later. Here, as in the first two settle-
ments, measures were not only promptly taken for establishing churches,
but schools were equally early in the thought of its founders.
That this appreciation of education was inherent and vital is shown
by the noble array of famous educational institutions along the Con-
necticut to-day. Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, Amherst Col-
lege, the State Agricultural College, the schools at Northfield, summer
schools in every direction, and a host of lesser institutions, are the blos-
soms of that early aspiration and endeavor.
So far, the terms of agreement with the Indians had been carefully
kept ; any complaints from them had received immediate attention and
adjustment, and everything was peaceable and friendly. Notwithstand-
ing this pleasant state of affairs, military companies were maintained
against any possibility of danger, as well as fortified houses in every
In 1662 Hampshire County was established, chiefly unsettled terri-
tory. It was then much larger than now, for the entire counties of
Worcester and Berkshire have since been taken from its original boun-
daries. Deerfield and Hatfield were settled in 1670, and Northfield in
1673. I n these early days Amherst was a part of Hadley, and it was
not laid out until 1 703.
The early peacefulness of the relations between Indians and settlers
in the valley seems to have been largely due to the just and considerate
policy of William Pynchon. The outbreak of " King Philip's War," in
1675, P ut an en( i t this quiet comfort. With a plan which appeared to
embrace the sweeping away of every settlement from the north down
the river, Northfield was completely burned by Indians, Deerfield had
fallen with the terrible massacre at Bloody Brook, and Hatfield, Hadley,
and Northampton came next. In the meantime, however, the natives
about Springfield, spurred to emulation by the ghastly deeds in the
north, had gathered there, and burned nearly everything except the
fortified houses where the inhabitants had fled for safety.
In the first attack on Hatfield the skill of the English more than
matched the numbers of their assailants.
In Northampton, also, they were repulsed, but only after severe loss
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 2g
Old Hadley is still full of the traditions of those early days. On the
1 2th of June, 1676, at least seven hundred Indians attacked Hadley.
It was then and there that the famous stranger, noble in dress and
manner, dignified and venerable, unable longer to remain an idle spec-
tator of so terrible events, issued forth and assumed command of the
English forces, directing them in the most skilfully military manner.
Encouraging and rallying, now at one point, now at another, his is per-
haps the most picturesque and impressive figure in all our early history.
By his aid the Indians were repulsed with slight loss to the English ;
and, this accomplished, the mysterious stranger disappeared as silently
and suddenly as he came. With the superstition of the times, it is not
surprising that he was devoutly believed to be an angel from heaven,
sent to save the colony in a disastrous crisis.
It was afterward ascertained that this opportunely guardian angel was
no other than Goffe, the regicide, who with his father-in-law, Whalley,
and twenty-eight other judges, had been condemned in England for
passing sentence of death upon Charles I., and had escaped in 1660.
Both Goffe and Whalley had been officers of high rank in Cromwell's
army. Escaping after their sentence, they had found refuge in 1664 a *
Hadley, unknown to all its inhabitants save the family who sheltered
In 1678 a peace was concluded, and King Philip finally conquered.
Beauty in dress and the love of fine clothes did not perish entirely,
even with a background of bloodshed and slaughter. We learn that in
1651 a law was passed in Massachusetts, restraining excess in dress. In
1673 twenty-five wives and five maids were tried before a jury for being
persons of small estate, yet wearing silk against the law.
A year later the wife of a Hadley man was again presented for wearing
silk. She was found guilty, and fined ten shillings.
At the March court in 1676 sixty-eight persons were presented by the
jury, among them thirty young men, " some for wearing silk, and that in
a flaunting manner, and others for long hair and other extravagances."
Witchcraft seems not to have flourished in this rich and verdant
valley, particularly in Hampshire County, to the extent which prevailed
in the earlier settlements on the rocky coast. In 1645 tne ^ rst ca ses
of witchcraft in New England occurred at Springfield. During King
Philip's War it lay dormant, naturally, under the more exciting events
30 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
But at the close of the war it revived ; and a remarkable instance
occurred at Hadley, when a Mr. Philip Smith was believed to be beset
by the spells of a wretched old woman, who caused all sorts of myste-
rious evils to assail him, finally causing his death. The old woman,
however, was allowed to live on ; and there is no evidence of her ever
having been brought to trial. About the time that Amherst was being
laid out as one of the " precincts " of Hadley, fresh disasters awaited
the valley dwellers, whose whole early progress seems to have been one
long record of struggles with every sort of trial and discouragement.
The brave settlement at Deerfield again became the scene of blood-
shed and cruelty, when, at the beginning of Queen Anne's War, the
French and Indians descended upon it, murdering and torturing on
every hand. The famous Deerfield bell was taken during this campaign,
and is believed to be still hanging in a little mission church on the St.
The long-suffering valley dwellers were alternately allowed to breathe
freely for a time, and then made to suffer all the distress of repeated
wars for an almost endless succession of years. But in 1760, permanent
peace came about, upon the surrender of the Canadian province to
For nearly one hundred and thirty years wars had racked Western
Massachusetts to its foundations.
Hardly an acre of the beautiful green Connecticut Valley, now full of
peace and sunshine and homely sound of toil, but has known the pressure
of flying feet, hard-pressed by savage pursuer, but has echoed to the
terrible shouts of slayer and victim, or has drunk the blood of friends
And yet even these events faded into the dim past before the on-
coming excitements of the Revolution.
Few events of particular significance at this crisis occurred in the
Connecticut Valley itself, although its roll of minute-men is a long and
honorable one. There were, however, many famous representatives of
Toryism in the region.
The only event of local interest in this general connection was the
" Shays' Rebellion," practically an uprising owing to a petulant feeling
on the part of the insurgents that they had not been getting their full
dues in various ways. Headed by Daniel Shays of Shutesbury, they
marched against Springfield and threatened the courts and the arsenal.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. 31
There was little bloodshed, and the chief indirect effect of the rebellion
was to hasten the adoption of a Federal government.
A camping ground is still pointed out northeast of Amherst.
From the close of this rebellion onward, life prospered in the valley.
Amherst, and its neighboring towns, strongly disapproved, and publicly
expressed its disapproval, of the War of 1812, being then, apparently, as
ever, rather upon the conservative than the impetuous side of life.
The primitive means of crossing the Connecticut River were, of course,
ferries, for it does not appear certain that at any points between New
Hampshire and Connecticut were available fords. In May, 1718, nine
pounds were raised for a free ferry for a year. The navigation of the
Connecticut had always been a difficult problem, owing to the falls at
South Hadley and Montague. It was not until after the close of the
Revolution, and of Shays' Rebellion, which had for twelve years occu-
pied the minds of all in Western Massachusetts, that an enterprise for
facilitating transportation sprang into new life. This was the building
of canals around these falls. In 1792 this laudable enterprise was
authorized by the legislature, and the names of those forming the
corporation are still preserved.
For many years the bridging of the Connecticut, or " Great River,"
was considered an impossible feat. It was attempted in 1792 at Green-
field. A toll-bridge was established at Springfield about 1805. It was
over twelve hundred feet long, and built with six imposing arches. Its
opening to the public was an occasion of great rejoicing, processions,
The two travellers, whose glance backward over the long history of
the fertile region they were passing so happily through had filled the
whole golden afternoon, were now approaching the primitive and pic-
turesque ferry at North Hadley. They hailed the sturdy boatman, who
took them slowly across to the lovely Hatfield shore by hand. An
idyllic little trip.
In these August afternoons the sun begins to lean toward the horizon
by six o'clock. A fresh coolness, even after the hottest days, springs
into the air, and the two in the carriage passed herds of cows, soft- eyed
and gentle, on their homeward way from pasture.
As the level sun-rays swept across the meadows, the green of the rich
grass was turned into velvety softness. The far, faint hills in the west
came forth in a deep purple evening dress. While yet it seemed to be
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
A Picturesque Ferry.
summer, an unsuspected scarlet leaf of sumac glowed suddenly by the
roadside, brilliant forerunner of that palpitating glory of color which
holds high carnival here throughout a royal autumn.
In this calm time how remotely misty seem those volcanic days when
all was but a strife of upheaval, how impossible the stupendous proces-
sion of prehistoric mammoths who left their huge footprints in the mud
of that perpetual summer, how equally far away the numb clasp of the
glacial silence, how more than strange the knowledge that the bed of
a great lake makes now the fertile farm, the shady woodland, the radi-
ant roadside !
Nearer, yet still remote, the war-cries and the tragedies of two hun-
dred and fifty years ago, and the sturdy strength and inflexibility of
purpose which built up and made possible the beautiful life we know
As the cool twilight descends, and one dwelling after another is
passed, the little home lights flash out cheerily into the still evening.
The warm yellow glow in the west grows less ; one bright star, senti-
nel outpost of a countless host, springs into life, and all the sweet valley
sleeps under the sky.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 33
A FEW DELIGHTFUL DRIVES.
VIEWS FROM HOLYOKE CHARMING HADLEYTHE "MEADOW CITY"
BLOOD-STAINED DEERFIELD OTHER ATTRACTIVE PLACES.
IN all New England there are few regions offering more delightful
opportunities for riding and driving than the portion of the Connec-
ticut Valley in which the town of Amherst lies. For miles around,
easy country roads wind along the highlands and through the valleys,
displaying lavishly all the beauty and grandeur of which indulgent Nature
is capable. It is like a vast park, through which one may wander for
months without exhausting the natural attractions, and be more deeply
impressed each day by the wonderful variety. Not a few are the visitors
who come to Amherst, and some of the neighboring towns, expressly to
spend an outing in driving ; and none depart disappointed.
With Amherst as a centre, there are long drives of a day or more to
Pittsfield and Lenox, fashionable as summer and fall resorts ; to Worth-
ington and Peru, on the lower Green Mountains, directly westward from
Amherst, and twelve hundred and sixteen hundred feet above sea-level ;
between Goshen and Ashfield both delightful places in themselves
is a charming " Little Switzerland " ; and, further to the west, Williams-
town and the Berkshire Hills are prominent ; Brattleboro' and Burlington
are the pleasant objective points in Vermont, as are Monadnock in
New Hampshire and Wachusett in Massachusetts. Indeed, the list is
almost limitless. Of the shorter and more important drives for those who
visit Amherst to become acquainted with the town and its surroundings,
a few of the best have been selected for brief mention in this book.
The ride to Mount Holyoke, eight miles, takes one to an outlook
not surpassed in the world. The road runs southeasterly to the Middle
Street of Hadley, four miles ; then south, along the Connecticut River,
two and one-half miles, with many choice views ; then up the mountain-
side through the veil of the old forest to the half-way house. The rest
of the trip to the summit is made in a quaint little car holding four per-
sons, and making the ascent under a covered way by means of a station-
ary engine at the bottom. Athletes will prefer to climb the 522 steps
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
which follow the side of the railway. Since the opening of the railroad in
1854, there has never been an accident. The summit has a perpendicular
elevation of 954 feet, and from it may be seen four States and forty towns,
eight of which are ^^.^^^
in Connecticut. -""*"*' ^"^x.
The panorama of ^
the winding river, \
fertile' valley, and
as far as the eye can see,
well nigh defies description.
The drive home may be varied
by crossing the Hockanum
ferry at the foot of the moun-
tain, and following the other
side of the river to Northamp-
ton, and thence to Amherst.
" Old " Hadley, four miles, by the " old road," Amity Street, or by
Northampton Street. The cemetery, the broad streets lined with elms,
and the Elmwood House, are the objects of interest. The latter is on
the site of the house where, two hundred years ago, Rev. Mr. Russell, the
first minister of the town, hid the regicide judges, Goffe and Whalley,
who had fled from England at the fall of Cromwell. From this hiding-
place Goffe emerged to assume command of the settlers and drive off
the attacking Indians in a memorable battle.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
The " Meadow City," as Northampton is known, is an eight-mile
drive over a straight road. It is a thriving young city of fifteen thousand
inhabitants, and many busy mills of almost national repute. It has been
the home of such men as the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, Governor Caleb
Strong, Rev. Timothy Dwight, and to-day numbers among its inhabitants
the noted novelist George W. Cable, Judge D. VV. Bond, and President
L. Clark Seelye. Northampton has many charming drives within its
limits. Round Hill affords extensive views of river and meadow, and is
The Russell Church and ElmWood House, m Hadley.
of interest because of its connection with the historians Bancroft and
Motley, and the "sweet singer," Jenny Lind. "Paradise" is a delightful
bit of nature preserved from the ruthless real estate agent by kindly
hands. One may reach it for a walk from Paradise road. Among the
other objects of interest in the city are Smith College for young ladies,
the Clark Institute for deaf and dumb, and the many manufactories.
Wade, Warner & Co., the publishers of " Picturesque Hampshire," and
projectors of similar works of other Western Massachusetts counties,
have a large printing business here, and publish the Hampshire County
Journal, a prominent weekly.
36 .THE HANDBOOK OF AM HEX ST.
Florence, three miles beyond Smith College, is the terminus of the
horse-car line. A drive through it to Leeds, one and a half miles, and
then along the stream to Haydenville and Williamsburg, brings one to
the scene of the Mill River disaster of 1874, when 158 lives were
destroyed in less than an hour. These towns are pleasant manufacturing
Easthampton, eleven miles, by way of Northampton, is the seat of
Williston Academy, a well-known preparatory school for boys. Return-
A Glimpse of Smith College.
ing by way of Mount Tom station and the Hockanum ferry lengthens
the distance to fourteen miles.
Mount Nonatuck, on the opposite side of the river from Mount
Holyoke, is ten miles from Amherst, whether one crosses the Connecti-
cut by the Hockanum ferry, or goes by way of Northampton, and the
meadow road to the south. The ascent is by a carriage road, to the top,
852 feet above sea-level, where there is a comfortable house. The view
from the summit is scarcely less beautiful than from Mount Holyoke.
Plainville ; two miles ; a little settlement in the town of Hadley ;
Amity Street, first right after descending the hill. From Plainville
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
thence by first left, around the base of Mount Warner, to North Hadley,
and return by the northern side of the mountain, is a pleasant drive of
The Huntington Estate ; three and a half miles ; Amity Street
directly west to the Connecticut River, then following the river north-
the left is
The Huntington Estate.
F. D. Huntington, and with the adjoining estates is a fine example of
the older Connecticut Valley homesteads. Following the river, the return
may be made by North Hadley.
Hatfield is five miles by way of North Hadley, and across the river
by a picturesque ferry. This town was one of the earliest of those set-
tled in this portion of the valley, and its history is filled with accounts
of Indian wars. It is laid out in two long streets, lined from end to end
with magnificent elms and pleasant estates. The return, if by way of
Northampton, southward, is eleven miles ; or by Sunderland, northward,
is fourteen miles, either way of great variety and charm.
Whately and Whately Glen ; twelve miles ; is a delightful picnick-
ing spot, and a haunt of artists and lovers of nature. North Hadley, the
ferry to Hatfield, and northwesterly roads from Hatfield Centre. The
return may be made by Sunderland, a mile or two further.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
Elm Street in Hatfield.
North Amherst ; two miles ; North Pleasant Street. Return may be
made by taking road to the west, to North Hadley, thence southeasterly
to Amherst, the whole distance being from nine to twelve miles, accord-
ing to variations ; or by the easterly road to North Amherst " city " ;
whole distance five miles. North Amherst " city " is two miles from
Amherst by way of Mount Pleasant Street.
Mount Toby is eight miles due north through North Amherst and the
Leverett plain, into wildness where bowlders, hugh forest trees, clearest
springs and brooks surround an unequalled bit of rural loveliness, at
the very base of the mountain. A climb of two miles by an easy moun-
tain road brings one to the top. From the wooden tower, now de-
stroyed by fire, could once be seen a wild sea of mountain tops and
lands in more than eighty towns.
It is seven miles to Shutesbury by way of Nor):h Amherst " city," and
following along the side of the roaring waters of the upper Mill River.
The road is picturesque, and at times shut in as if there were no outside
world ; but from the crest, with a deep chasm farther east, one can look
far over valley, hill, and range, and see Greylock in the west, Monad-
nock in the north, and Wachusett in the east.
Leverett, six miles, through North Amherst " city," and directly
north, affords a fine series of views. A pleasant way is by way of North
Amherst and Factory Hollow.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 39
Lock's Ponds, in North Leverett ; twelve miles ; a pleasant place to
Montague, ten miles, through North Amherst, north through Leverett,
passing Mount Toby, is a wide and picturesque drive.
Sunderland, seven miles, through North Amherst, directly north.
To reach South Deerfield by way of the Sunderland bridge, one
must, go through North Amherst village in a northwesterly direction for
ten miles, passing through the villages of North Amherst and Sunder-
land. Sugar Loaf Mountain, around whose base the road winds, after
crossing the bridge, is well worth ascending. The town of Old Deer-
field, five miles farther, is of great historical interest, and in it are many
memorials of the fierce French and Indian wars that more than once
devastated it. The return drive may be made through the North Hatfield
meadows, directly south, and across the river by the Hatfield ferry, and
thence to Amherst.
In Pelham the fishing-rod factory of the Montague City Rod Com-
pany is an interesting place to visit. It is about two miles directly east
from Main Street. This industry was founded in the year 1860 by
H. Gray & Son, and was the first factory known in which fishing-rods
were made by machinery. The founders carried on a constantly increas-
ing business for fourteen years, and in 1874 sold out to J. G. Ward & Co.
Looking toward North Amherst.
This firm continued until 1880, when the business passed into the hands
of Bartlett Brothers. The senior member of this firm, L. L. Bartlett,
withdrew in 1883, and E. P. Bartlett, sole proprietor during the next six
years, greatly enlarged the plant, and trebled the amount of business.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
In 1889 the business combined with the Montague City Rod Company.
This company now employs at this factory a full force of fifty hands,
and has a constantly increasing business. Their annual output is about
six thousand fishing-rods of all grades, ranging from the boys' cheap rod
to the finest German silver mounted split bamboo rods. The catalogue
contains descriptions of the two hundred different styles of fishing-rods
manufactured. The stock used is the native ash, maple, and birch ; also
lancewood and greenheart wood imported from the West Indies, and bam-
boo poles from Calcutta. Mr. E. P. Bartlett, who is now in charge at this
The Fishing-Rod Factory.
factory, has been connected with the business ever since it started, and
as either part or sole owner during the last seventeen years. It is owing
in a large measure to his energy and business capacity that the business
has grown and developed to its present large volume. His enterprise
has aided very materially in the growth of the manufacturing interest of
Amherst. The Montague City Rod Company has another large factory
for fishing-rods at Montague City. The officers of the company are :
President, L. L. Bartlett of Montague City; treasurer, C. W. Hazelton
of Turner's Falls. E. P. Bartlett is one of the directors of the company,
and superintendent of the factory at Pelham. Amherst is the post-office
address of this branch of the firm.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 41
West Pelham church ; four miles ; and thence southward, behind
the first mountain range following a mad brook down to Pansy Park, is a
pleasant drive. The way is about fifteen miles if the return to Amherst
is by going southeasterly to the Bay road, and thence through South
The tower on Mount Lincoln is six miles due east to the West
Pelham meeting-house, and thence south, clinging to the left-hand roads
The Tower on Mount Lincoln.
with guide-boards. The roads follow a deep chasm at the left, a private
graveyard at the right, the mountain woods, and along the mountain top
to the summit. The tower is twelve hundred feet above the sea-level,
the surrounding valleys, and no other point gives a clearer idea of the
Connecticut Valley as a whole. As the position is higher than Mounts
Holyoke and Tom and the Sugar Loaves, one may look directly across
them to the distant and loftier continuations of the Green Mountains.
Pratt's Corner ; four to six miles, according to the variations ; East
Street, turning north, and taking the first road to the northeast. This
way is along the valley of the Pelham hills, and full of most charming
42 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
Pansy Park, the flower farm and seed establishment of L. W. Goodell,
is situated about four miles from Amherst, upon the main road to Belcher-
town, and about a mile this side of the railroad station, which takes
its name from this place. Here in the summer time may be seen
more than two thousand varieties of flowering plants, including pansies,
asters, pinks, petunias, and many others, being grown by the acre for
the seed. Especially during the months of August and September, all
these make a gorgeous display of floral beauty, which attracts thousands
of visitors annually from far and near. One of the most attractive
features of the place is the aquatic garden and artificial pond, con-
A Flower Field at Pansy Park.
taining one of the largest collections of water-plants grown in the open
air in America. Among other rarities in this collection are several
varieties of the Japanese and sacred Egyptian lotus, and about twenty
varieties of water-lilies from various parts of the world, including the
magnificent blue and red lilies from Zanzibar. The cultivation of the
latter has until recently been confined to the city parks and the grounds
of the wealthy, on account of the high price of the plants ; but
Mr. Goodell has shown that they can be as easily grown from the
seed as the common annuals, and made to flower in tubs, and in this
way they are now being grown from seed he has distributed all over
the country. The very rare Victoria Regia, from the river Amazon,
the largest water-lily in the world, with leaves from four to six feet
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 43
across, was flowered at Pansy Park in the summer of 1890 without
artificial heat, the first time this has ever been accomplished in an open
pond. The taste for the cultivation of aquatic plants increased so
rapidly that the following season Mr. Goodell constructed ponds to
cover several acres, and is cultivating this class of plants on a larger
scale than has ever before been attempted. In addition to the seeds
The First Victoria Regia grown without Artificial Heat.
grown upon the farm, large quantities are imported from the growers
of England, Germany, and France, and some varieties that require a
long season to mature are grown on contract in the Southern States.
A catalogue and price list is published annually in January by Mr.
Goodell, and thousands of them sent out. The seeds are put up in
hundreds of thousands of packets, and go by mail or express to
customers in all parts of the country, and in fact all over the globe,
as orders are received from Europe, the East and the West Indies,
Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and other foreign lands. Mr. GoodelPs
success in a business started under discouraging circumstances, and
44 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
in competition with old established firms, is remarkable. He began
during the Centennial year, with a capital of only $25, on a poor,
run-down farm, which was mortgaged and otherwise deeply in debt.
The old homestead, which has been in the Goodell family for over a
century, was a few years ago one of the most neglected and unsightly
in town, and would in the ordinary course of events have become one
of the much-talked-of " abandoned farms." It is now a most attractive
place, and well worth a long journey to visit. The year Mr. Goodell
began business, he had less than two hundred customers, while now there
are over fifty thousand. From two hundred to five hundred orders are
received daily during the selling season in the winter and spring months.
Six years ago, land more suitable for the cultivation of the flowers being
needed, Mr. Goodell bought the two estates adjoining his own, where most
of the growing has been done. Pansies being one of the leading special-
ties, the distinctive name of " Pansy Park " was then given to the place.
Belchertown ; ten miles ; a pleasant village on the hills at the
southeast. The road is direct after passing through the East Amherst
T _______ , ........ _______ ___________ _________ _____ ......... village and by the
tions, with several
and a handsome
add to the natural
the place. A half
a mile Ond the
The Pond in Belchertown.
Pansy Park Station
of the Massachusetts Central Railroad, the road passes the site of the
birthplace of Dr. J. G. Holland, the well-remembered author. In the
grove, at the right, just before crossing the railroad at Pansy Park Station,
there was formerly a school-house in which Henry Ward Beecher, when
a student at Amherst College, preached his first sermon. Beautiful
roads and picnic grounds about the ponds abound between Amherst
and Belchertown. The drive from Belchertown to Enfield offers land
views of more than ordinary loveliness.
A VIEW OF BELCHERTOWN COMMON.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
South Amherst; four miles; South Pleasant Street, following the
left-hand road after ascending the hill beyond Mill River.
The Old Bay Road ; four miles ; the right-hand road after ascending
the hill beyond Mill River, once the southern boundary of the town.
It runs along the foot of the Holyoke range, was first a bridle-path, and
later a part of the stage route between Northampton, Hadley, Brookfield,
and Boston. The "Bay Path" has been made memorable by Dr.
Holland. The road commands an immense variety of landscape.
Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley.
The Notch ; five miles ; to the Bay road, thence over the Holyoke
Mountain range. This cut was the first outlet of the great lake which
once spread over this portion of the Connecticut Valley.
South Hadley and Granby, each eight miles, are beyond the Notch.
The former place is the seat of the Mount Holyoke College for young
ladies, a well-known educational institution. Returning home by the
road around the base of Mount Holyoke will give variety, and add only
three miles to the distance. By crossing Smith's Ferry in South Hadley,
the only ferry on the river which is operated by the force of the current,
and following the river to Northampton, the drive will be lengthened by
five miles. Granby is a small town, in early times a portion of Hadley.
48 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
AMHERST OF THE PRESENT.
ITS SITUATION MATERIAL CONDITION GLIMPSES ALONG THE
STREETS OF THE VILLAGE NORTH AMHERST THE " CITY"
EAST STREET SOUTH AMHERST.
THE town of Amherst occupies a position a little east of the centre
of Hampshire County, which was established by act of the General
Court, May 7, 1662. The original county included the present
Berkshire County, set off in 1761 ; Franklin County, set off in 1811 ;
and Hampden County, set off in 1812. There is but one city in Hamp-
shire County, Northampton, and of the twenty- two towns, Amherst is
the second in point of population. The total population of the county,
according to the national census of 1890, was 51,859.
Adjoining Amherst are : Sunderland and Leverett, in Franklin County,
on the north; Shutesbury, in Franklin County, Pelham, and Belcher-
town, on the east ; Granby, on the south ; and Hadley, on the west.
On two sides, nature has provided the town sharp boundary lines in the
ranges of the Pelham hills and Holyoke mountains.
Between these and the highlands, where the main village lies, inter-
vene broad valleys, which stretch away westward, to the banks of the
peaceful river. Several minor streams traverse the town in their jour-
ney to the Connecticut, here and there broadening into graceful ponds,
which never fail to attract the migrating water-fowl in spring and fall,
affording many a good shot to the chance sportsman. The woods
and the brooks as well furnish in their seasons similar amusement,
although the latter are fast becoming desolated. The whirr of the
partridge, the chatter of the squirrel, and the bobbing white tail of
the rabbit, frequently startle the wandering scholar who loves to give
himself to solitude and communion with nature. Sometimes a very
shrewd hunter is permitted to hear and see these things, if he is careful
to be unarmed.
The area of Amherst is about twenty-eight and three-quarters square
miles, and its villages are Amherst, North Amherst, North Amherst
" city," East Amherst, or East Street, and South Amherst
1. Amity Street.
2. Lincoln Avenue.
3. Prospect Street.
4. North Pleasant Street.
5. Main Street.
6. Spring Street.
7. College Street.
8. South Pleasant Street.
9. Northampton Street.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 5 I
The distances from the centre to the surrounding villages are :
North Amherst and the "city," two miles; East Amherst, one mile;
South Amherst, four miles. North Amherst " city " is a mile eastward
from North Amherst.
The roads and streets that connect these villages with each other and
with the neighboring towns are, in the main, the smoothest and most
comfortable of country thoroughfares. Within the limits of constant
and heavy travel they are laid and kept in repair with a thoroughness
seldom seen in towns of equal size. Their entire length is about seventy-
The New London Northern Railroad has stations at South Amherst,
Amherst, and North Amherst " city." The distance from New London,
Conn., where the road connects with the New York, Providence, and
Boston and the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroads, and
with the steamer for New York, to Amherst is 85 miles ; from Williman-
tic, connecting with the New York and New England road, 56 miles;
from Palmer, connecting with the Boston and Albany, 20 miles ; from
Belchertown, connecting with the Massachusetts Central, 10 miles;
from Brattleboro, connecting with the Connecticut River, and the
Central Vermont, 36 miles; and from Miller's Falls, connecting with
the Fitchburg, 15 miles.
The Massachusetts Central Railroad was extended through Amherst
in 1888, and has stations at South Amherst and Amherst. Boston is 96
miles distant ; Oakdale, where connections are made with the Worcester
and Nashua Railroad, 55 miles ; Belchertown, connecting with the New
London Northern, 9 miles ; and Northampton, connecting with the
Connecticut River and the New York, New Haven and Hartford roads,
In politics, Amherst is usually found within the Republican fold. Its
local elections are not carried on strongly marked political lines, but
they are frequently more exciting than the State or national contests.
There are about one thousand voters.
A few statistics will give the practical reader an idea of the material
conditions of the town. The tax rate for the year 1890 was $15.75 on
every $1000, and during the four years previous averaged $15.50. In
comparing this rate with that of other towns, the discount of ten per
cent allowed in return for early payments must be taken into consid-
52 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
Law and order have an almost undisputed sway over Amherst, and
the guardians of the peace are limited to a dozen constables and one
night patrolman. The grounds of the two colleges are protected by
specially appointed watchmen. The town lock-up is with rare excep-
tions desolate of inmates. It frequently shelters a weary tramp from
the cold, but offenders against the law, scarcely at the rate of a half-
dozen a year.
The fire department consists of two hose companies and a hook and
ladder company, all under the charge of a board of twelve engineers
appointed by the selectmen. In 1891 thirty-eight men comprised the
working force of firemen. Hydrants are located at convenient intervals
in the thickly settled portions of the town, and the force of the water
supply is such that the hand-engine is seldom called into service. In
the past four years, since 1887, the average number of fires has been
The main village of Amherst is lighted by gas and electricity.
A water system was introduced by a private company in 1881, supply-
ing all the main portions of the town. The source of the supply is
Amethyst Brook, four miles distant, in Pelham, and chemical examina-
tion has shown the water to be of excellent purity.
Shortly after the introduction of water, a sewerage system was planned
by the several influential citizens, and put in at the expense of benefit-
ing abutters. It now consists of three divisions emptying into running
brooks in different parts of the village, and the service is sufficient for
the accommodation of all living in this portion of the town.
One of the most attractive features of the village of Amherst is the
Common, a long stretch of greensward reaching from the Amherst Col-
lege buildings to the business blocks. Previous to 1880 it was an
unsightly swamp, and was changed to its present good condition through
the efforts of William A. Dickinson, Esq. The expenses were defrayed
by private subscription, and at present it is largely cared for by the
local improvement society.
The national census of 1890 placed the population of Amherst at
4512, an increase of 214 in ten years. As augmenting the social and
business life of the town, the 500 students attending the two colleges
may well be added to this number. The actual growth of the town may
be readily seen from these census figures: In 1776 there were 915
inhabitants; 1790, 1233; 1800, 1358; 1810, 1469; 1820, 1917; 1830,
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 55
2631; 1840, 2550; 1850, 3057; i860, 3206; 1870, 4035; 1880,
The elevated situation, the pure air from the hills, the excellent water
supply, and the freedom of a country life, combined with the material
comforts of modern homes, make Amherst one of the healthiest and most
cheerful of the towns of Western Massachusetts. The deaths average
about sixty-five in a year, and the proportion of sickness is small.
Amherst exults in still retaining that ancient emblem of pure democ-
racy, the town-meeting, and many are the patriotic words, sage counsels,
and, it must be confessed, now and then, bits of oratorical filling, that
have echoed in the ears of the oldest inhabitants at these assemblages
of the people. The college boys have always been zealous in their
attendance upon town-meetings, and there is more than one legend
among them of the absurdities that were gravely legislated upon in the
mythical times when students are said to have been allowed to cast their
votes on important town matters. If such times ever did exist, no one
can clearly remember them, although of course this casts no doubt upon
the truth of these circulating stories. The annual meeting, when officers
are elected and appropriations made, occurs on the first Monday in
The yearly expenditures of the town reach about $42,000. In 1890
they were $i 10,947, which included the cost of the new town hall. The
public debt in that year was $142,000. The total valuation of taxable
property was $3,290,128. About $2,000,000 is untaxable. The taxable
personal property amounted to $931,314, and real estate $2,358,814.
The educational interests of Amherst are well provided for in the
annual appropriations. The schools in 1891 were eleven in number,
with twenty-one regular teachers. The expenditures for schools in the
year 1890-91 were $11,499, or $ X 4 f r everv pupil. The school build-
ings and land are valued at about $60,000. Amherst schools rank well
among those of the State. One of the three committeemen is usually
The village of Amherst is the business centre of the town. Three
short brick blocks, wherein are located the majority of the stores of the
town, radiate from the Amherst House, a hostelry bearing an enviable
reputation throughout the State. For many years this site has been
occupied by the hotel of the town. The original building was burned,
with the rest of the blocks in Merchants' Row, in 1879. The present
56 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
house was built directly after the fire, and is owned by the Conkey
heirs. Ordinarily, one hundred guests may be accommodated, and at
such occasions as the commencement of the colleges, special arrange-
ments nearly double this capacity. Lorenzo Chase has been the pro-
prietor since 1890. Connected with the hotel, T. L. Paige has a finely
equipped livery stable.
About this end of the village Common are clustered the post-office,
town hall, banks, newspaper office, and stores. At the further end rises
College Hill, with its group of college buildings.
The village post-office and the Amherst Savings Bank are located in
the block next the hotel. The employees of the post-office handle
about 1,000,000 letters and 580,000 papers in a single year, and the
cash receipts are never far from $10,000 a year.
The Savings Bank was incorporated April 15, 1864, and began busi-
ness the 2d of January following. The amount of deposits, January i,
1891, was $1,359,419. E. F. Cook was then president.
The comfortable quarters of the Amherst Club are in the next block,
which belongs to B. H. Williams. This club was organized in 1891 by
the young business men of the town, and it has handsomely appointed
reception, reading, and billiard rooms. Herbert T. Cowles was the first
The Amherst National Bank, in Hunt's Block, was organized in Janu-
ary, 1864, largely through the influence of the late Leonard M. Hills,
who became its first president. At Mr. Hills' death, L. D. Hills suc-
ceeded to the office, which he has since held. The capital of the bank
The Baptist church stood for many years next to Hunt's Block. The
society was organized as a branch of the New Salem and Prescott
church, November 8, 1827, later becoming a branch of the church at
Northampton, and recognized as an independent organization on August
3, 1832. This building was erected in 1855. The pastor in 1891 was
Rev. J. B. Child.
Across the Common, on the corner of Spring Street, is the Grace
Episcopal church, a handsome gray-stone structure, with a curious
finger-like spire at one corner of the tower. The Right Reverend F. D.
Huntington, Bishop of Central New York, organized the society, with
thirty-seven members, September 12, 1864. Rev. S. P. Parker, D.D.,
was installed as the first pastor, January n, 1865, and until March of
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. 59
the year following, services were held in the hall of the old Amherst
Academy building, then standing on the present site of the Amity Street
Grammar School. The church building was consecrated July 17, 1866 :
it cost $40,000, and has a seating capacity of five hundred. At present
there is a generous active membership, and since 1888 the Rev. William
J. Tilley has been the rector.
The town hall is a picturesque building of brick, red sandstone, and
granite. It was erected by the town in 1889 at a cost of $58,000, H. S.
McKay of Boston being the designer. In addition to a handsome hall,
seating eight hundred and fifty persons, there are rooms for the town
officers, the district court, the town library, and several business men.
In the rear of this hall, Company K, 2d Regiment, M. V. M., has a
large armory, built by the town in 1890 and rented to the State. The
company was organized November 19, 1887, and in 1891 had full ranks
with E. G. Thayer, captain ; W. A. Thayer, ist lieutenant ; F. A. Bard-
well, 2d lieutenant. W. G. Towne was the first captain.
In the rear of the American House Block, opposite, is the office of
the Amherst Record, a thriving weekly, boasting its forty-eighth volume.
It first appeared in 1844 under the name of the Hampshire and Frank-
lin Express, Samuel C. Nash being editor. In 1865 it became the Hamp-
shire Express, and three years later, the Amherst Record. The Record
is published every Wednesday afternoon, and its editors, Carpenter &
Morehouse, are the proprietors of a large job and book printing business.
Kellogg's Block, at this end of the Phoenix Row, stands upon the site
of the home of Noah Webster, who resided in Amherst from 1812 to
1822. The house was destroyed by fire in 1838.
Masonic Hall, in Cook's Block, is the headquarters of the Pacific
Lodge of Masons, the E. M. Stanton Post 147, of the Grand Army, and
the Women's Relief Corps.
It is a peculiarity of the village, that the chief streets radiate in every
direction from the Common. The most satisfactory results, therefore,
of an attempt to see whatever there is of interest, will be obtained by
taking the Common as a starting-place for a walk through each one.
They are not in any case thickly populated for more than a quarter of
a mile from the Common, and a ramble about them, while not occupy-
ing a long time, will well repay an admirer of country scenery, in the
sight of the many comfortable homes, for Amherst is truly a village
of homes, and now and then the distant landscapes of rare beauty.
60 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
From the side of the Amherst House, Amity Street, the " old road "
to Hadley, extends directly westward to the town boundary, Plain-
ville, and the Connecticut River. It is the modern survivor of one
of the original roads of the town, laid out with a width of forty rods in
The building opposite is a veritable landmark. When it was but one
story high, it contained the town's first post-office, which was removed
from East Amherst about 1820. The first postmaster sold out, after
being a few years in this place, to one Jared White, who paid $100
for the business, and continued it in the same location. The building
is now owned by Frank P. Wood, who opened it as Wood's Hotel in
1882. It is best known to the college boys as "Frank's," and the
warm-hearted proprietor has had a permanent position in the usually
fickle affections of the boys, ever since he first demonstrated to them
his skill as a cook and his kindness as a friend. More than one class
and club has celebrated their friendship for the man and the place in
their publications, and many a delectable game bird, rare-bit, or lobster
have they enjoyed during the days when the restaurant was open.
" Frank" entered private life in 1889, but as a caterer he is still in great
demand. His rooms are rented to college students.
The Grammar School building opposite stands upon the site of
Amherst Academy, in its day the most prominent educational institu-
tion in this part of the State, and very influential in the founding of
Amherst College. Opened in December, 1814, the incorporators, when
the charter was granted two years later, included all the leading citizens
of the town, which was then about one-fourth its present population.
For a dozen years both sexes were admitted to the Academy. A poor
student preparing for the ministry was required to pay no tuition, and
very frequently found kind people who gladly gave him his board. The
number of pupils attending the Academy at one time amounted to ninety
of each sex. After young ladies had been excluded, the number varied
between seventy-five and one hundred. Connected with the Academy as
a pupil was Mary Lyon, the founder of Mount Holyoke College at South
Hadley. Among the teachers, since become prominent, was the venera-
ble Professor William S. Tyler of Amherst College. The Academy build-
ing was a three-story brick structure, and being considered unsafe, was
taken down in 1868 to make way for the present school-house.
The old homestead of Judge Strong, once the adjutant-general of
GRACE EPISCOPAL CHURCH.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 63
Massachusetts, stands some distance back from the street. It is now
owned by Mrs. S. E. Emerson.
At the opposite corner of North Pleasant Street is Mrs. R. G. Williams'
Select Family School. The success of this institution and the experience
of its teachers, who are Mrs. Williams, the Rev. Mr. Williams, and assist-
ants, insure the most faithful and earnest instruction to the pupils.
Pleasantly situated on South Prospect Street, near Amity, is " The
Terrace," Mrs. W. D. Herrick's Home School for backward and delicate
children. Mrs. Herrick receives into her family a limited number of
children, who, from disease or some untoward circumstance, are unfitted
for the ordinary school. To these she devotes herself, faithfully aided
by efficient and skilled teachers, who give to each pupil that care
and training which the mental and physical peculiarities demand. The
Home stands upon high ground, affording a commanding view of the
beautiful Connecticut Valley and the Holyoke Mountain range, and it
is perfect in its sanitary appointments. A fine lawn and ample play-
grounds afford abundant opportunity for out-of-door exercise and recrea-
tion. The school has been established a number of years, and is favored
with the confidence and patronage of the best physicians and educators
of the country.
Among the other residences on Amity Street are those of Professor E.
P. Crowell r Dean of Amherst College ; E. B. Marsh, registrar of Amherst
College ; Professor Charles Wellington, Dr. Charles A. Goessmann, Pro-
fessor G. F. Mills, all of the Agricultural College, and the summer home of
Hiram Heaton of New York. President H. H. Goodell of the Agricul-
tural College lives on Sunset Avenue, near Amity. On Lincoln Avenue,
leading directly to the Agricultural College, is one of the finest views in
the town. On this street is the house of Mrs. C. D. Adams.
That portion of Pleasant Street which extends northward from the
hotel is most aptly named. For the distance of a quarter of a mile,
great straight-trunked elms line each side of the road, almost uniting
their branches overhead, and sheltering in the warm summer time many
a tuneful katydid. The residences on the left side of the street are
those of E. D. Bangs, the treasurer of the Savings Bank ; the Conkey
Mansion, now the parish home of St. Bridget's church, and occupied
by the pastor, Rev. J. B. Drennan ; the home of Levi Cowles, standing
a generous distance back from the street ; and the dwelling of George
Cutler. On the other side, live W. H. Long, William Kellogg, whose
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
house is on land bought from Noah Webster, and Dr. O. F. Bigelow.
The Universalist Society, organized November, 1887, has a site for a
church building here. The services are held in Masonic Hall, pending
the erection of the church, and the Rev. J. H. Holden is pastor.
The village cemetery includes within its limits the graveyard that was
laid out by the town of Hadley in 1830.
On the road toward the Agricultural College is the St. Bridget's
Roman Catholic church, built in 1871. Previous to that time the
North Pleasant Street.
Catholics of the town held their meetings in Palmer's Block, on the site
of which the town hall now stands. Until 1872 the pastors came from
Northampton, but in that year Rev. Francis Brennan was installed. The
pastor since 1887, Rev. J. B. Drennan, is also pastor of the Hadley
A short distance beyond is the residence of H. D. Fearing, manu-
facturer of straw hats.
Leaving Pleasant Street here, it will be interesting to return to Mount
Pleasant Street, which extends over the hills to North Amherst " city."
A short distance from the fork of the two roads is Wildwood Cemetery,
a most beautiful spot, bought and laid out in 1888 by a private cor-
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 67
About a mile from the village, on the left of the road, is the Mount
Pleasant House, of which Mrs. W. F. Bullman is the proprietor. The
estate was formerly the property of Colonel W. S. Clark, president of the
Agricultural College, and cost him nearly $40,000. The house stands
upon the highest part of the hill, nearly four hundred feet above sea-
level, and commands views of the Connecticut Valley that are limited
only by the range of one's vision. It was after long travelling in
foreign countries that Henry Ward Beecher stood here looking off
upon the wide landscape, and said. " I have seen nothing finer in the
world," a remark that has been repeated often by visitors of equal
prominence. The extensive grounds of the estate, with its spacious
lawns and shaded walks, are always models of the gardener's art.
Returning to the village square, a walk to the American House brings
one to the corner of Lessey Street. The first two estates, on the left,
belong to E. F. Cook, the president of the Savings Bank. The second
of these is occupied by Mr. Cook, and the first by Lieutenant L. W.
Cornish, military instructor at the Agricultural College. For many years,
the Northampton and Amherst stages, owned by Mr. Cook, made their
68 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
two daily trips from the stables in the rear of this house. At the com-
pletion of the railroad they were discontinued. The place is of historical
interest, as it includes an orchard planted by Noah Webster.
Upon Oak Grove Hill, over which Lessey Street leads, are the resi-
dences of Rev. W. S. Tyler, D.D., of Amherst College, and his son,
Professor J. M. Tyler. The house of Dr. Tyler was the birthplace and
youthful home of Helen Hunt Jackson, whose writings, under the nom-
de-plu-me " H. H.," still charm many readers.
The Chapter houses of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity are on the
summit of the hill. The " Oak Grove School " for young ladies occupies
the colonial mansion, formerly the residence of J. Howard Sweetser of
New York, on the opposite side of the street. This school was founded
in 1885, and is conducted by Miss V. W. Buffam, a graduate of Welles-
ley College, assisted by an able corps of instructors. The aim of the
school is to train up girls with healthy bodies, sound minds, and refined
manners. The facilities can hardly be excelled. The boarding pupils
enjoy a well-kept home in a charming situation. Preparation is here
made for college, several of the best institutions in the State accepting
the certificates of the school in place of regular examinations for admis-
Main Street is a well-travelled thoroughfare along which one may look
from the verandas of the Amherst House. It crosses New London
Northern Railroad near the station, and extends through East Amherst
The meeting-house of the First Congregational Society, on the right
side of the street, was dedicated September 23, 1868, the corner-stone
having been laid September 2ist of the previous year. The society dates
back to the earliest settlement of the town, when there was no distinction
between the religious and political body. The business of the parish
was transacted in public meeting, and the necessary funds for its sup-
port were raised by taxation, together with those needed for highways
and the other usual expenses of a town. The first meeting-house was
built about 1840, upon the site of the present college Observatory. It
was a severely plain structure without and within. Around the sides
were ranged the pews, the men sitting on one side and the women on
the other. The first minister was Rev. David Parsons. In 1788 a
meeting-house of a more elaborate character was erected upon the same
site, and three years after, private individuals contributed the money for
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. /I
the belfry. The opening of the College was followed by a need for bet-
ter accommodations, and the third building, the present College Hall, was
erected in 1829. This cost $6500, and originally had a portico in front
supported by huge pillars. When it was finished, the society decided
that the town should hold no meetings in it, and it was after it had
been occupied some years that the people became worldly enough to
allow stoves, kerosene lights, and an organ to be admitted. The growth
of the society since it has occupied the present building has been steady.
It has now the largest membership in the town, excepting only the col-
lege church. The building cost $75,000. In the spring of 1890 the
church celebrated its one hundred and fiftieth anniversary. Until July,
1891, Rev. G. S. Dickerman was pastor.
The residence of William A. Dickinson, Esq., treasurer of Amherst
College, is situated upon the opposite side of the street. The estate
adjoining has long been in the possession of the Dickinson family, and
is now the home of Miss Lavinia Dickinson, whose sister, Emily Dick-
inson, left, at her death, the wonderful poems which have since been
72 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
published and widely read. This house was the first brick building in
The residence of the late Professor R. H. Mather is at the right.
During the first year of his administration, President Gates occupied the
Further down the street, and standing some distance back, are the
residences of Leonard D. Hills, president of the National Bank, and of
Henry F. Hills, president of the Hills Company, manufacturers of straw
Beyond the railroad, on the same street, is the church building of the
Methodist Episcopal Society, first organized in 1868, with Rev. E. F.
Pitcher, pastor, and reorganized in 1875, under Rev. S. L. Rogers.
The present building was erected in 1879. In I ^ > 9 1 Rev. S. A. Bragg
was the pastor.
The residence of S. A. Stevens is on the same side, near the East
Grouped near the railroad station of the New London Northern road
are the only manufactories of the village. The wooden buildings of The
Hills Company are devoted to the manufacturing of straw goods. In
the season closing May, 1891, this company made 350,000 dozen straw
hats. H. D. Fearing & Co. occupy the brick building. Each year
they turn out a large line of the finer grades of straw hats.
Spring Street, extending eastward from the centre of the village
Common, has several pleasant residences, among them that of Professor
D. P. Todd of Amherst College. The High School building, built about
1860, is here.
College Street is parallel with Spring Street. On the corner of the
Common is the Beta Theta Pi House, and beyond, the Chi Phi and
the Phi Delta Theta houses. The residences here include those of
Dr. H. H. Seelye, assistant in the physical culture department of the
Amherst College ; Mrs. Laurens P. Hickok, widow of the late Dr.
Hickok, whose works on philosophy perpetuate his name ; Ex- President
Julius H. Seelye, whose connection with Amherst College dates from
1855 Professor W. L. Montague, of Amherst College, and the director
of the Summer School of Languages ; Dr. Edward Hitchcock, son of
the president of Amherst College of that name ; Mrs. A. I. Cooper ;
and Dr. T. P. Field.
On South Pleasant Street, beyond College Hill, are the Delta Upsilon
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
House and the residence of Mrs. Edward Tuckerman. Beyond the
railroad bridge is the home of the Misses Snell, sisters of the late Pro-
fessor E. S. Snell of Amherst College. Ever since the death of Professor
Snell, the weather statistics of the College have been kept and published
from this house.
A short distance from here, on Snell Street, is the residence of Pro-
fessor E. P. Harris of Amherst College.
At Mill Valley, a mile from the village, on South Pleasant Street, is a
picturesque group of comfortable farmhouses.
Northampton Street is the direct road to Northampton. On the
corner opposite College Hall is the Psi Upsilon House, and next to it
is the Chi Psi Lodge. Still further from the Common are the Theta
Delta Chi House and the homes of Professor Henry Gibbons, Professor
H. H. Neill of Amherst College, O. D. Hunt, a prominent merchant,
and Professor B. K. Emerson, Professor A. D. Morse, and Dr. C. A.
Tuttle of Amherst College.
At the corner of Parsons Street, the first left, is the Zion's Congrega-
tional church, established and supported by the students of Amherst
76 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
College. The building was erected in 1868, and in 1891 Rev. Milton
Waldo was the pastor.
On Lincoln Street, near the Theta Delta Chi House, is the home of
Rev. G. S. Burroughs, pastor of Amherst College.
Dr. Marshall Henshaw and Dr. H. N. Morse live on Orchard Street.
On this street and on Northampton Street are entrances to the athletic
field of Amherst College.
North Amherst. The road from Amherst follows along the rich
highlands, descending a short hill or two, and rising again as it nears the
village. Here everything clusters about a pleasant square, the stately
white church, a brick school, stores, and neat dwellings. Just beyond
the settlement the historic Mill River, once the northern boundary of
the town, flows westward to the Connecticut. North Amherst " city "
is a mile to the east, and Factory Hollow, a diminutive but active manu-
facturing settlement, is a short distance to the north.
The church building of the North Congregational Society was built
in 1826. It contains a fine organ, the gift of Mrs. G. E. Fisher. The
society was organized November 15, 1826. Rev. George H. Johnson
was the pastor in 1891.
The school building is occupied by a primary and a grammar school.
The North Amherst Library Association has a collection of nearly two
thousand volumes for public use in this building.
The post-office was established about 1839. The nearest railroad
station is at the " City."
Among the residences here are those of Henry W. Haskins, several
years one of the selectmen of the town, Edmund Hobart, and Jonathan
Cowles, whose farm is one of the largest in the State.
North Amherst "City" is not so large as its name would lead one
to believe. The confiding visitor expects something more than the
single street, with its railroad station, store, church, and school-house.
Beside some cheerful houses, and a factory or two, that is all there is.
The village cemetery is a short distance on the road to Amherst.
The Methodist Society, whose little meeting-house stands near the
railroad track, was not regularly organized until March 9, 1849, four
years after the dedication of the building. Extensive repairs were
made upon the house in 1876. The pastor in 1891 was Rev. S. A.
There is no post-office at the " City " ; all the mail goes to North
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. 8 1
Amherst, or is opened informally at the railroad station by the post-
master, who drives over for it.
The little Queen Anne school-house was built in 1890. Among the
residences is that of A. R. Cushman, whose leather-board mills are some
distance beyond the centre of the village.
East Amherst, or " East Street," as it is locally and perhaps better
known, is a mile eastward from the main village, Amherst. Like that
place, it is built around a grassy remnant of one of the old wide roads,
the east street, laid out in 1704. This village in the early part of the
century was the active centre of the town. As late as the year 1825,
town-meetings were held in the church which then stood at the head of
the Common, where the iron water trough now is. The post-office is a
branch of that at Amherst.
The Second Congregational church was built in 1889, the first meet-
ing-house of the society having been erected in 1790. Since 1886 Rev.
F. J. Fairbanks has been pastor.
The present beautiful Common was laid out by the enterprise of sev-
eral public-spirited citizens, among them Charles O. Parmenter, at one
time representative to the General Court.
East Amherst had the first post-office of the town. It was in the
house now occupied by Willard M. Kellogg, on East Street, some dis-
tance north of the village store, and was opened about the year 1815,
Rufus Kellogg being postmaster. The mails arrived only once a week
at those times, and it is within the memory of Mr. Willard Kellogg that
his father was summoned from the hayfield by the blowing of a horn to
change the mail while the carrier, who came on horseback, sought rest
and refreshment. Rufus Kellogg, after a few years, moved the office to
the main village, keeping it in the building now occupied by Frank
Wood. At the right on the Pelham road, just beyond its comer, near
the residence of Noah Dickinson, and the Common, there stood in 1787
a tavern kept by Oliver Clapp, a friend and sympathizer of Daniel Shays,
the leader of Shays' Rebellion. Landlord Clapp is said to have given
aid and comfort in various ways to the insurgent captain. On the retreat
of Shays from Springfield, January 28, 1787, with his eleven hundred
men, a halt was made at the hostelry, but not for a long stay, as General
Lincoln, commanding the State militia, was following in the rear. Just
after Captain Shays had departed toward Pelham, eleven sleigh-loads of
his provisions stopped at the tavern, where the horses were about to be
82 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
fed, but the loyal innkeeper hurried them after the retreating rebels, who
were in great need of the stores, and would have been seriously affected
if General Lincoln had appeared in time to take the loaded sleighs.
After Clapp's tavern was given up, another was built at the north end
of the Common. This is still standing, though it has outlived its first
use by many years.
On the east side of the Common is the old residence of General Ebene-
zer Mattoon, a major in the Revolution, member of Congress in 1801,
a sheriff of Hampshire Country, major-general and adjutant-general of
the State militia, and captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery
Company of Boston. He was born in 1755, and died in 1843.
A short distance from the village Common, on the road to Belcher-
town, are the grounds of the Hampshire County Agricultural Society.
South Amherst is a small farming village in the southeastern part
of the town. It has a church, a post-office, and store, and not far away
are stations of the Massachusetts Central and New London Northern
The South Congregational church was first organized in 1824, and
reorganized in 1858. The church building, erected in 1825, was
remodelled in 1843. The first pastor was Rev. H. B. Chapin. Rev.
H. W. Boyd was pastor in 1891.
The post-office was established in 1838.
The town almshouse, and farm, near the east street, was rebuilt, after
a destructive fire, in 1882. It is valued at about $8000, and yields the
town, under the superintendence of Henry C. Dickinson, a good return
upon its value.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 87
A GLANCE AT ITS HISTORY THE COLLEGE OF THE PRESENT
THE SUMMER SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES A TOUR OF THE COL-
LEGE BUILDINGS THE GREEK LETTER FRATERNITIES THEIR
AMHERST COLLEGE was opened September 18, 1821, under
the name of the "Collegiate Charitable Institution." On this
day the first president was inaugurated, and the first building
As long before as 1762, the people of Hampshire County had made
several ineffectual attempts to obtain a charter from the General Court
and the Governor of the Province of Massachusetts to incorporate a
" seminary of learning." The matter seems to have been forgotten in
the excitement of the approaching war ; but the interest then awakened
was only in abeyance, and afterward resulted in the founding of Williams
College and the establishment of Amherst Academy. It was from this
latter institution that the Amherst College developed.
The Academy was opened in 1814. The residents of Hampshire and
the surrounding counties subscribed the money needed for its support,
and in 1816 the State granted it a charter. The building stood upon
the site of the present grammar school-house on Amity Street ; and the
land was the gift of Dr. David Parsons, afterward made president of the
Board of Trustees. Many distinguished names are to be found upon
the books of the Academy, connected with it as teachers and pupils.
For years it ranked among the first schools of Massachusetts.
In 1818, when the trustees were engaged in collecting a scholarship
fund of Si 0,000 for " indigent young men with the ministry in view," it
became evident that the people were willing to give a larger sum for an
institution of a higher grade. Accordingly, after more than $51,000
had been gathered in conditional subscriptions, it was voted to found
the " Collegiate Charitable Institution." The money thus obtained was
the first that Amherst College had, and to-day it is entered on the books
of the treasurer as the " Charitable Fund."
88 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
The laying of the corner-stone of the first building of the Charitable
Institution, the present South College, is thus mentioned in the reports
of the occasion : "On the ninth of August instant (1820) the Board of
Trustees of Amherst Academy, together with the subscribers to the fund
then present, a number of the neighboring clergy, and the preceptors
and students of the Academy, preceded by the building committee and
the workmen, moved in procession from the Academy to the ground
of the Charity Institution." The dedication exercises, the fall of the
year following, were simple, and opened with an address by Noah
Webster, president of the Board of Trustees. The institution began
September 19, with forty-seven students and three instructors.
After the young college had been fairly launched upon its career, the
trustees, who were still trustees of the Academy, turned their attention
toward obtaining a State charter, which should give them the privileges
of a recognized college. It was a long struggle against well-organized
opposition from Harvard, Brown, and Williams colleges. State politics
were affected not a little by it, but the publicity of the agitation only
brought popularity to the infant institution. When the charter, which
changed the name to Amherst College, was finally granted, February 25,
1825, the number of the students and instructors had increased nearly
threefold. Upon those students who had graduated prior to the grant-
ing of the charter the trustees immediately conferred the honorary
degrees due to them.
The first president of Amherst College was the Rev. Zephaniah Swift
Moore, D.D. He had been president of Williams College, resigning
that office to accept the position at Amherst. His official term was
from September, 1821, to June 29, 1823, when he died. The following
list gives the names and terms of office of the succeeding presidents of
the College :
Heman Humphrey, D.D 1823-1845
Edward Hitchcock, D.D., LL.D , 1845-1854
William Augustus Stearns, D.D., LL.D 1854-1876
Julius Hawley Seelye, D.D., LL.D 1876-1890
Merrill Edwards Gates, Ph.D., LL.D., L.H.D., chosen president July
30, 1890, assumed the duties of the office October 27 of the same year.
His formal inauguration occurred at the following commencement.
The government of the College is vested in a Board of Trustees, whose
corporate name is " The Trustees of Amherst College." Its member-
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 93
ship can never be more than seventeen, of whom seven must be clergy-
men and the remainder laymen.
The College is not sectarian, and there are no sectarian or denomi-
national restrictions as to the membership of the Board.
Five positions are now filled by the alumni of the College, though for
nearly fifty years the legislature of the State exercised this power. The
Board holds two regular meetings, usually one during commencement
week, and the other in the fall of each year, special meetings being
called by the president when necessary. The control of the internal
affairs of the College is in the hands of the faculty, of whom the presi-
dent is the executive officer. This body in 1891 comprised twenty-two
professors and nine lecturers and instructors.
In 1882, at the suggestion of President Seelye, the faculty associated
with them in the direction of college affairs a body of ten students,
known as the College Senate. The members are elected by their classes,
acting under established regulations, four seniors, three juniors, two
sophomores, and one freshman. The president of the College presides
at the meetings of the Senate and may veto any of its actions. All
questions of decorum and discipline may be brought before it, and
offenders may be punished by suspension or expulsion from college.
Since its beginning the plan has proved successful in lessening the
number of .restriction rules of the College, bringing the students and
teachers in close yet dignified relations, and developing a manlier spirit
among the students. In a letter to the alumni of the College in the
fall of 1888 President Seelye said :
" The action of the faculty in referring to the decision of the Senate all questions
of college order and decorum has been justified by the result. The Senate have con-
sidered such questions, from the first, intelligently and without passion; and during
the past year there has been an evident growth in their sense of responsibility, and in
the weight given to their judgments by the College. The decisions of the Senate
have sometimes gone entirely counter to the prevailing wishes of the students ; but
they have been accepted, so far as I know, without dissent. The Senate seems now
able, not merely to voice, but to direct, college sentiment on matters submitted to
their jurisdiction ; and I cannot but think that there is in this an educating force of
great worth and promise."
The Amherst method of student government has recently been copied
by several prominent institutions. The Senate meets monthly at the
94 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
The departments of instruction may be divided into Philosophy, His-
tory and Art, Language and Literature, and Science. The student is
offered his choice of a classical or a scientific course, the former entitling
him at graduation to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and the latter to
that of Bachelor of Science.
The work of the first year at Amherst College is prescribed for all
students. After the first term of the sophomore year, 'there is great
freedom of choice among an exceedingly broad system of electives.
Out of the fourteen to sixteen hours of work in a week for each student
through sophomore year, an average of less than five ; through junior
year, a little more than one ; and through senior year, a little more than
three, which includes philosophy and oratory, are prescribed for
The elective studies, open for choice, include the fullest work in
Greek, Latin, French, German, Italian, and Sanskrit ; ample courses in
rhetoric and oratory, logic, English literature, biology, both cryptogamic
and phenogramic ; zoology, physiology, and general biology, and full
opportunity for laboratory work in chemistry. In geology and miner-
alogy the College has held a leading place ever since the work of Presi-
dent Hitchcock made its name as well known in England and Germany
as in America. For physics, the new laboratory will afford, in addition
to the general work, ample facilities for full courses in electricity and
its application. There are full courses in practical and theoretical
astronomy with observatory work ; and thorough instruction in history,
political economy, political ethics, and the duties of citizenship ; in psy-
chology, moral philosophy, metaphysics, and the history of philosophy,
and biblical literature. Physical culture is prescribed throughout the
Attendance upon college exercises is required. An allowance for
necessary absences is made by permitting the student to remain away
from one-tenth of the total number of exercises of each course in a
term, without requiring an equivalent. An excess of this proportion of
absences is made up by specially assigned work, the amount of which
is determined by the degree of the delinquency. In the case of excess
of absences from Sunday services and morning prayers, special work in
some of the regular courses is required.
The number of students in the College has averaged 344 during the
ten years ending 1891. It is a matter of some interest to note that
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
during the last few years about one-seventh of all the entering students
have come to Amherst from other institutions. In 1891 the students
represented thirty States of the Union. The following table gives the
number of students and teachers, at intervals of five years, since the
founding of the College. It indicates the fact that the largest number
in college, until after the year 1866, was 259 in 1836, and that between
these years there was a period of great depression. Since 1851 the
increase has been gradual, but almost constant.
Amherst College receives students from a large number of prepara-
tory schools, some of the best of which are allowed to enter their pupils
on certificate of the work done.
The following are some of the leading ones :
Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, X.Y.
Boston Latin School, Boston, Mass.
Chicago High School, Chicago, 111.
Newton High School, Newton, Mass.
Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.
Phillips Academy, Exeter, N.H.
Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Roxbury Latin School, Roxbury, Mass.
Saxton River Academy, Saxton River.
Springfield High School, Springfield, Mass.
St. Johnsbury Academy, St. Johnsbury, Vt.
Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Mass.
Worcester Academy, Worcester, Mass.
Worcester High School, Worcester, Mass.
The amount of pecuniary assistance that Amherst is able to give its
worthy students is constantly increasing.
An enthusiastic scholar of slender means need not leave the Col-
lege for want of aid. Opportunities for earning money are frequently
9 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
offered by the residents of the town, and desirable positions where a
student can aid himself by rendering service in the different depart-
ments of the College are reserved exclusively for those who require
financial assistance in obtaining their education. In addition to this,
the beneficiary funds are divided liberally and justly. The amounts
available are shown in this table :
Charitable fund $83,000
Scholarship fund 70,400
Private scholarship gifts 470
Prizes l >779
The cost of an education at Amherst is so often a matter of serious
concern within the family circle that reliable data cannot fail to be
appreciated. Published estimates are often found to differ from
experience. Careful inquiries have been made among trustworthy
students of the College, and the estimates given below are based upon
actual experiences. The effort has been to err, if at all, in overstating
rather than understating those expenses which vary with a student's
personal habits. The smallest annual expenditure reported was $308.50,
which included every item of cost except the long vacation. A large
number of students spend less than $400, and this can be done without
suffering of any kind. The majority of students are believed to spend
between $475 and $675 each year. In the following table the annual
expenditures are itemized upon four different scales. The actual cost
of each item has been carefully obtained and entered, without taking
into consideration the fact that it is almost universally the custom in
college to reduce the net expenses by renting furniture, or buying it,
as well as books, at second hand, and of disposing of them at the close
of the course or of the year. These and other very useful methods
of economizing may well be considered by students who wish to
estimate in advance the expense of going through college. The upper
limit of expenditure is of course indeterminable. The estimate in this
case is made on the assumption that the student rooms alone, while
in the three lower tables, the expenses of room-rent, fuel, lights, and
furniture are entered as if shared with a room-mate.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
Fuel and Lights . . .
Furniture (annual aver-
Society Fees ....
(a) This sum is believed to be a fair average. (b) In the dormitory.
The Department of Physical Education and Hygiene deserves especial
attention here, because it was the first to be established as a part of the
regular course in any American college. In fact, the systems of physical
culture now in use in nearly all the institutions of learning in this coun-
try are largely copies, or embody many features, of the Amherst system.
To the late President Stearns belongs the credit of suggesting that daily
exercise under the supervision of a physician should be a required por-
tion of the college student's life. He had found that, if left to them-
selves, the students neglected to care for their health, and frequently
graduated from college physically wrecked. The plan he proposed was
at length adopted by the trustees, and a regular professorship founded.
In 1860 the Barrett Gymnasium was built for the department, and the
year following Dr. Edward Hitchcock, the son of President Hitchcock,
and the present incumbent of the position, was appointed. The history
of the department is the history of the life of its chief. He developed
a system at first unknown, then distrusted, but now approved by the
most eminent educators.
104 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
The present organization of the department brings within its scope
everything which has a bearing upon the physical welfare of the college
students. Its purposes may be conveniently classed under these five
Personal acquaintance with the physical condition of every student.
Requirement of the amount of daily exercise which experience has
shown to be most beneficial, and the direction of all who take special
Examination of every student at intervals during the college course,
and preservation of all statistics thus taken.
Class instruction in anatomy, physiology, and hygiene.
Control of the general athletics of the College.
These functions are fully performed. At all times during the college
year Dr. Hitchcock is thoroughly conversant with the general health of
every student. Overwork is scarcely possible under such care, and
when sickness does occur, the case is carefully followed by the depart-
ment, which interferes, however, in no way with the physician in charge.
Students may at any time consult Dr. Hitchcock.
Regular exercise in the Gymnasium is required of every student in
college. Each class assembles four days in the week for a half-hour's
pleasant drill with wooden dumb-bells. There are always class officers
to lead the exercise under the direction of the professor or his assistants.
In a modified way, well adapted to the purposes of the department, the
organization of the classes is like that of a military body. An annual
prize drill occurs in May, the three upper classes competing. The
prize on this occasion is $100, given by Dr. Rufus P. Lincoln, of the
class of 1862, to the class obtaining the highest mark in the dumb-bell
drill and marching. Athletically inclined students, particularly those in
training for any of the college teams, are given every needed suggestion
Perhaps the most interesting portion of the work of Dr. Hitchcock,
and certainly the most valuable to the department, is the system of
anthropometry, or recording of physical statistics. Three times during
the college course the student is examined, measured, and tested in
every essential function of the body. If found defective or undeveloped
in any parts, he is advised what he may do to reach, or exceed, the
usual standard. From the immense number of measurements made in
the past thirty years, the department is able to give a valuable and
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. IO/
interesting average of measurements as a basis for advice and the future
exercise of the student. The examination that is thus made is more
minute than that required in the United States army. An important
feature of the system, as practised at Amherst, is the publication of the
averages for the use of all who may be benefited by them.
Dr. Hitchcock conducts classes in the subjects that are important as
giving the young man a thorough knowledge of the proper care of his
health. This study is required early in the college course.
In the direction of the general athletics of the College, the department
exercises only a reasonable supervision of the members of the base-ball,
foot-ball, and athletic teams of the College. The control in the matter
of conducting the contests for championships with other colleges, and
the financial management of the teams, is lodged in the Athletic Board,
organized in 1891, and consisting of three members of the college fac-
ulty, four alumni of the College, who are not members of the faculty,
and the managers of the three teams. Of these members, Dr. Hitch-
cock, as the head of the department, and F. B. Pratt of the class of
1887, as the donor of the Pratt Field, are life members.
Dr. Hitchcock has as an assistant, a practising physician in the town,
and since 1 890 there has been a second assistant under the provisions
of the Lincoln fellowship fund.
THE SUMMER SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES.
During a portion of the long vacation of Amherst College, the Summer
School of Languages, under the direction of Professor W. L. Montague,
is in session. The school was established in 1877 by Dr. L. Sauveur of
New York City. From the beginning, Professor Montague has been
actively connected with its management, assuming the entire control in
1883, when Dr. Sauveur retired. The school term opens shortly after
the College has closed, and continues five weeks a period which is
always pleasantly and profitably occupied with recitations, frequently
in the open air, lectures, excursions, and many social affairs.
The College Chapel forms the headquarters of the Summer School.
In this building are the director's office and the rooms of most of the
recitations. Walker Hall opens several of its rooms for recitations ;
Williston Hall for work in chemistry ; and the privileges of the Gymna-
sium, Appleton Cabinet, the Observatory, and the Library are all offered
to the members of the school.
108 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
Making no pretensions at the first to be anything more than a school
of languages, the courses of study have been gradually broadened until,
in 1891, they were embraced in twelve distinct courses, as follows:
French, German, Greek and Latin, Italian, Spanish, English Literature,
Art, Chemistry, Anglo-Saxon and Early English, Physical Education,
Library Economy, and Mathematics. All of these courses are graded
so that the best advantages are offered to persons of every degree of
accomplishment. A most enjoyable feature of the French and German
departments has always been the boarding-tables, at which native teachers
preside and all English words are strictly discountenanced. The amount
of study is entirely optional. Frequent lectures upon interesting sub-
jects are delivered each week.
The board of teachers of the school comprised eighteen members in
1891, and three special lecturers. Professor Montague is himself a
thorough language student, being at the head of the departments of
French, Italian, and Spanish in Amherst College. The instructors in
French, German, and Italian are natives of foreign countries, all highly
educated, and speaking their language in its purity and perfection.
The members of the school are, to a great extent, teachers of various
schools throughout the country, coming to Amherst to increase their
knowledge and improve the methods which can be gained only from
native instructors. Besides these, there are always many people who
study for their own pleasure, and young men and women in preparation
for college or special work. The average attendance in the five years
ending in 1890 has been over two hundred, and nearly every State and
Territory in the Union has been represented.
An especial aim of the school is to furnish the best instruction and to
reduce the expenses of those attending to a minimum. The accom-
panying table gives the necessary items of expenditure :
All the languages and lectures, excepting Anglo-Saxon and Early English, $16
Anglo-Saxon and Early English 8
full day 22
half day , . 12
out-door sketching 8
in-door work 8
normal work 12
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. 113
full course $10
half course 5
one subject 10
two subjects 18
Library Economy 10
To members of the School of Languages a reduction of $2 from
each item under Chemistry, Art, Physical Training, and Mathematics is
allowed. If only lectures are attended, the charge is $i each course.
The sessions of the school have always proved successful from a
social as well as a scholarly standpoint. Amherst offers a wealth of
natural enjoyment that is never unappreciated, and excursions, drives,
and picnics are as numerous as there are days in the school. Taken all
in all, the life of a summer school student is far from being irksome.
THE COLLEGE BUILDINGS.
One of the chief features of a visit to Amherst is a walk through the
college grounds, with a glance at the buildings and their interesting histo-
ries. With the exception of College Hall, the Church, and the Cabi-
nets, all will be found open during the greater part of the day when the
College or the Summer School of Languages is in session. The Cabi-
nets may be seen during fixed hours each week-day, usually from ten
o'clock to five, between May i5th and November ist, and from ten to
twelve and three to four at other seasons ; or they will be opened at any
time on application to the custodians, whose residences are usually
bulletined at the entrances.
Perhaps the most convenient starting-point for such a tour is at the
corner of Northampton Street and the Common, where stands
College Hall, which was built in 1830, by the First Congregational
Society of Amherst, and used by them as a place of worship until 1867,
when purchased by the College for $8000. The building is now used for
the public lectures, commencement, and other exercises of the College,
and has a seating capacity of eight hundred, which may be increased
by nearly two hundred if the platform be brought into service. Next to
College Hall is the
1 14 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
Henry T. Morgan Library, enlarged to its present size in 1882.
The original building included the square portion at the northeast corner
and the tower, and was built in 1853 at an expense of $10,000. This
was the first stone building of the College. The new portion, compris-
ing the librarian's office and the rooms above it at the side, and the
large book room at the rear, was designed by Allen & Kenway of
Boston, and was completed at a cost of $48,381, which included the
entire renovation of the original building. The whole structure is of
Pelham granite. In the hallway, at the right of the entrance, and in
the old portion, is a room for small gatherings and recitations, used as
headquarters of the alumni at commencement ; beyond it is a packing-
room, both of these opening into a large cataloguing-room. The libra-
rian's office is at the end of the hallway. On the walls at the right of
this hall are valuable specimens of Assyrian art, in the shape of eight
huge sculptured stone slabs, bearing colossal mythological figures in
relief and hieroglyphic inscriptions. Their actual cost was about $600 ;
their value many thousands. These slabs were presented to the College
in 1855 by the late Rev. Henry Lobdell, of the class of 1849, a mission-
ary to Assyria, who died at Mosul in 1850. They were taken from the
palace of Sardanapalus, the last king of Assyria, and their inscriptions
belong to a period nine hundred years before Christ. In 1871 Rev.
W. H. Ward, D.D., of the class of 1856, and since 1870 editor of the
New York Independent, greatly enhanced the value of these works of
ancient art by translating, from the cuneiform characters, into English
the inscriptions, which were found to be a record of a conquest. The
manuscript translations are preserved in a bound volume in the Library,
and are very interesting even to those not professing to be archaeological
students. At the head of the stairs is the book-delivery room of the
Library, opening from which is the reading-room, which occupies the
entire second story of the original building, and formerly contained all
the books of the Library.
The reference books and periodical literature are kept here. This
is a large, finely decorated room, lighted by long windows, and a lantern
in the roof. In the side opposite the entrance are beautiful stained-
glass windows of appropriate design. They are the gift of Hon. Frederic
Ayer of Lowell. Beginning at the left of the entrance of the room, the
paintings on the walls are in this order : the first five presidents of the
College, Drs. Moore, Humphrey, Hitchcock, Stearns, and Seelye ; Pro-
THE HAXDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 1 1/
fessor W. S. Tyler, Professor N. W. Fiske, Professor C. B. Adams, Pro-
fessor C. U. Shepard, Professor Aaron Warner, who were all at the same
time members of the faculty ; and Joel Giles of Townsend, Hon. David
Sears of Boston, Hon. Samuel Williston of Easthampton, Hon. Chester W.
Chapin of Springfield, S. H. Winkley of Philadelphia, Hon. G. H. Gilbert
of Ware, Rev. Dr. Brace of Hartford, Conn., who have been liberal bene-
factors of the College. The portraits in the book-delivery room are of
President Stearns and Hon. David Sears. The attendants will readily
grant permission to inspect the book room, and visitors will find it very
interesting. There are six floors for the storage of the books, each 50
by 41 feet in area and y|- in height. They are entirely of iron lattice-
work, which, with the walls of solid masonry and iron door, renders the
entire room as nearly fireproof as it is possible it could be. The shelves
are capable of holding 20,000 volumes on each floor, or more than
120,000 in all. At the first of January, 1891, there were 55,000 volumes
in the Library, and the annual increase is between 2000 and 2500. In
1867, the libraries of the Athenae and the Alexandrian societies, then in
very active existence, were merged into the college Library, and for
some years the members of these organizations paid an annual fee to the
College for the care and increase of the volumes. The students have
always been allowed almost complete freedom of access to the book
room and its. contents. The building bears the name of Henry T.
Morgan of Albany, whose generous gifts to the College aided in erecting
the new portion of the Library. In 1891, William I. Fletcher was the
Next to the Library stands the
President's House. This was erected by the trustees of the Col-
lege in the year 1834, and cost $9000. The first house erected for the
president of the College is still standing, and, in a remodelled condi-
tion, is the chapter house of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity. President
Humphrey occupied the present house immediately after its erection.
For a number of years previous to 1891 it was a private school for
young ladies, and after being again remodelled became the home of
President M. E. Gates.
Crossing the head of the Common, in front of the Library, the
College Fence is noticed at the right. This is an institution peculiar
to college men. It is usually the scene of the celebration of the victories
of the College, and almost any summer evening a group of students can
Il8 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
be found gathered upon it, making the air melodious with college songs.
It was presented by the class of 1889 and dedicated by appropriate exer-
cises, in which the faculty and students took part, in the spring of 1887.
Custom prohibits the freshman class, unless having won some honor for
the College, from using this fence.
Passing into the college grounds, the brick building at the right is
Williston Hall, which occupies the site of the former North College
dormitory. The dormitory was built in 1827 at an expense of $10,000,
and was burned early in the spring of 1857. The loss occurred during
the darkest days of Amherst's history, but it proved an unexpected
benefit. Scarcely had the flames been extinguished when the late Hon.
Samuel Williston of Easthampton announced that he would erect a new
building, containing recitation rooms and laboratories that had long
been needed by the College. Williston Hall was thus dedicated May
19, 1858, and cost $15,000. The main entrance of the building is on
the north side, and in the hallway is an interesting memorial of the
Amherst College students who fought in the Rebellion. It is a six-
pound brass cannon, which was captured at Newbern, N.C., March
14, 1862, and upon it is engraved its history and the names of the
Amherst students four officers and sixteen privates who were killed
in the battle. After its capture, the cannon was presented by General
Burnside to the Twenty-first Regiment, M.V., who in turn gave it to
the trustees of Amherst College " as an enduring monument to the
memory of their lamented brothers who fell while fighting for liberty
The Mather Collection of Art occupies the entire upper story of the
building. It is probably the finest collection of plaster casts in the United
States, excepting only that at Boston, Mass. The honor of the sug-
gestion, as well as of the actual gathering of money and purchasing of
the collection belongs to the memory of the late Professor Richard H.
Mather. Professor Mather solicited, largely from personal friends, the
first $10,000 of the fund, and made the selections himself when visiting
Europe. The casts began to arrive in 1874, and during Professor
Mather's life not a year passed without the addition of something desir-
able. The collection has long since outgrown its present room, and
until better accommodations are provided few additions can be made,
although a fund is constantly accumulating.
As an example of the care that Professor Mather took in making the
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 12$
collection, it may be remarked that it contains the only cast in existence
of the bronze doors of the Senate Chamber at Washington.
The design for these doors was modelled by Crawford, and they were
cast at Chicopee, Mass. At the opposite end of the gallery are casts
of the Ghiberti doors at Florence, Italy. The frescoing about the room
is pure Greek in style.
The Greek lecture room on the second story is reached from the art
gallery by the smaller stairway. This was originally the hall of the
Athene Society. The corresponding room on the same floor reached
from the door at the eastern side of the tower was at the same time
occupied by the Alexandrian Society. This latter room is used, pending
the completion of the new chemical laboratory, as the laboratory for
advanced work. The chemistry lecture room is at the left of the south
entrance on the ground floor, and the general laboratory is at the right.
Crossing the driveway in front of Williston Hall, the stone building at
the left is
Walker Hall. This building was completed as it now stands in
1883, and cost $87,250. Twelve years previously, a building of the
same general design was erected on the same site through the gener-
osity of Dr. W. J. Walker of Charlestovvn, Mass. The original Walker
Hall was burned March, 1882, and with it was destroyed one of the
most valuable collections of minerals in the country. A portion of
the outside wall of the building alone remained, and after it had been
strengthened on the inside, became a part of the new Walker Hall. The
expense of the rebuilding was met by the late Henry T. Morgan of
Albany, N.Y., and in return he was honored by having his name
attached to the College Library. The rooms of the building are assigned
as follows : i, registrar's office ; 2, treasurer's office ; 4, physics work-
room ; 5, pastor's office ; 3 and 6, recitation rooms ; 7 and 8, physics
lecture room and laboratory ; 9, president's office ; 10, recitation room ;
n, astronomical lecture room; 12, 13, and 14, recitation rooms.
The rooms of the physics department are open for inspection. The
laboratory contains about $9000 worth of apparatus, of which $2000 worth
was constructed especially for the College in Paris. The lecture room has
upon the wall, at the right of the entrance, a brass tablet to the memory
of the late Professor Elihu Root, placed there by the class of 1881.
The Barrett Gymnasium, erected in 1860 at a cost of $10,000, was
largely the means of developing the system of physical culture for which
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
Amherst is justly famous. It was the first building in the country
erected for gymnastic work in charge of a regularly appointed profes-
sor. It is of Pelham granite, and is 70 feet long by 50 wide. It was
designed by C. E. Parkes of Boston, and bears the name of Dr. Benja-
min Barrett of Northampton, who was a large contributor toward the
fund for its erection and support. Since the completion of the Pratt
Gymnasium in 1884, the building has been used for various purposes,
while awaiting alterations to make it a geological cabinet.
The Barrett Gymnasium.
When used as a gymnasium, the physician's office, dressing-rooms, and
bowling-alleys were on the ground floor, with the main hall for class and
special exercise above.
The College Church, designed by W. A. Potter of New York, was
erected in 1870-71, and cost $70,060, of which the late William F.
Stearns, son of President Stearns, contributed $47,000. The site for the
building was chosen for its remarkable beauty. A dormitory known as
" East College " stood between it and the tree-sheltered path leading to
the college well. This dormitory was taken down shortly after the church
was completed. The view from the rear of the church is one of the
finest within the limits of Amherst. Two miles across the valley, the
Pelham hills rise in gentle outline, the range extending from the north,
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. 12?
as far as can be seen, until near the southern limit of the town it is lost
in the Belchertown hills. The valley, broad and fertile, is well popu-
lated in parts, and contains nearly all the manufactories of the town.
Toward the south it spreads out into generous farmlands through which
run two thread-like railways. The grandeur of this landscape when the
foliage has become brilliant in the fall, is unsurpassed by any in the west-
ern part of the Commonwealth. This crest of the College Hill is visited
by lovers of nature in every season of the year.
The church building itself is not out of harmony with its surroundings.
Its gray sides and brown sandstone trimmings are plentifully covered
with the soft, clinging ivies planted by the college classes at their gradu-
ation. At the entrances and between the windows are soft-hued shafts
of marble. Curious carvings decorate the brown stones in the gable
ends of the building. "Dei Glorias" and "A.D. 1870" are on the
north side ; the cross and other symbols of the Christian Church, with
small reliefs of the four evangelists, between the windows, on the east
side ; a lantern, thorn branch, passion flower, wheat, and grape vine, all
typical of incidents in the life of Christ, on the south side ; and " Agnus
Dei " and " Rex," " Lex," " Dux," " Lux," on the west side. The spire
of the church is about one hundred and fifty feet high, and twenty-four
feet square at the base. Its four sections are alternately square and
octagonal .. Within it hangs a chime of eight bells, given by George
Howe of Boston, as a memorial of the Amherst boys who fell in the
War of the Rebellion. The gift acquires special significance from the
fact that the son of Mr. Howe was among the number whose lives were
sacrificed for their country. The seats in the main portion of the church
are reserved for the families of the faculty, the juniors, and seniors. In
the right transept are seated the freshmen, in the left the sophomores.
The capacity of the house is about six hundred. The stained glass
window in the right transept was given by the Congregational church
at Bedford, Mass., President Stearns' native place ; that opposite, by
Ex-Governor Onslow Stearns of Concord, N.H. ; and that in the rear of
the church, by the late Eckley Stearns of \Voburn, Mass. President
Stearns' former church at Cambridgeport, Mass., presented the pulpit.
Tablets placed upon the church walls commemorate the useful lives of
President Stearns, William F. Stearns, and Professor Richard H. Mather.
The corner-stone of the building was laid in the autumn of 1875, and
the dedication occurred July i, 1873.
128 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
At the side of the college grounds, and south of the church is
The Pratt Gymnasium, begun in the summer of 1883, and completed
the following spring at a cost of $68,000. It ranks third among the col-
lege gymnasiums of the country, those of Yale and Harvard only being
superior in size and cost. The building is of brick with brownstone
trimmings, and is 122 feet long and 88 wide. It bears the name of Pratt
Gymnasium in recognition of the generosity of Mr. Charles M. Pratt of
New York, a graduate of the class of 1879. In the hall, at the right
of the main entrance of the building, is a brass tablet, bearing this
CHARLES MILLARD PRATT, OF BROOKLYN, N.Y.,
CLASS CAPTAIN OF THE CLASS OF '79,
TO INCREASE THE USEFULNESS OF HIS ALMA MATER IN
THAT DEPARTMENT IN WHICH HE EVER FELT AN
INTEREST, AND TO EXPRESS THE WARM AFFECTION WHICH
HE CHERISHED FOR ITS FAITHFUL HEAD,
DR. EDWARD HITCHCOCK.
The office of the professor of hygiene and physical culture and the
room for making physical examinations and recording statistics occupy
the corner of the first floor, between the main and side entrances. The
other rooms on this floor are the large dressing-room, containing 274
heated and ventilated lockers, and shower-bath, dry-rub, and small
dressing-rooms. The main hall is 80 feet long by 64 wide, and contains
such apparatus as is needed for class and individual exercise. It is two
stories high, and lighted and ventilated from the sides and roof. A
running-gallery, 207 feet lof inches long and 6 feet wide, encircles the
hall ii feet above the floor. In the second story is the "Resort," the
headquarters of the college weekly, The Amherst Student, and a store-
place for many highly prized trophies and relics of college interest ; a
billiard room, the only one in the country connected with a college
gymnasium, and containing a pool and two billiard tables; and the
rooms for the custodians of the building. The basement has a base-ball
cage, 76 by 21 feet, three bowling-alleys, 70 feet long, and a sparring-
room. Tub and sponge baths of the best patterns, dressing, and furnace
rooms occupy the remainder of the basement.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. l$l
As the visitor passes up the walk from the main entrance of the
Gymnasium, directly in front, is
Appleton Cabinet, erected in 185 5, at an expense of Si 0,000, appro-
priated for the purpose by the trustees of the will of the late Samuel
Appleton of Boston. Mr. Appleton left the sum of $200,000 at the
disposal of his executors to be used for benevolent and scientific
purposes, and it was in response to the urgent appeals of President
Hitchcock, then in office, that the money for this building was obtained.
The portion of the Cabinet first approached as the visitor proceeds from
the Gymnasium, is the biological laboratory and lecture room, where
specimens for class work and illustration are kept.
The main part of the building has been made almost completely fire-
proof for the protection of the collections that are stored hi it. The
entrance from the biological lecture room is closed by heavy iron doors.
The second story is devoted to the Adams Zoological Museum, a large
part of which was the gift of the late Professor C. B. Adams. The col-
lection of insects and shells are kept in the horizontal cases. The latter
collection comprises about eight thousand species, and of it Professor
Louis Agassiz once said, " I do not know in all the country a con-
chological collection of equal value." In the gallery at the head of the
hall has been placed the Audubon collection of birds, presented to the
College in 1886 by the Hon. E. E. Farnam, of the class of 1855. It is
valued at $1200. The cast of the skeleton of the American Megathe-
rium, near the entrance, was the gift of the late Joshua Bates of London,
England. The original skeleton was found in Buenos Ayres, South
The ground-floor of the Cabinet is chiefly occupied by the Hitchcock
Ichnological collection, made by the late President Hitchcock between
the years 1835 anc * 1864. President Hitchcock was the originator and
developer of the science of Ichnology, and this collection is the largest
and most valuable of its kind in the world. It now consists of 21,773
tracks of animals of 120 different species, all belonging to the general
name of Lithichnozoa, or Stone-track animals. Most of the slabs were
taken from stone-quarries at Turner's Falls, South Hadley, and Holyoke.
Complete reports of the discoveries were prepared by President Hitch-
cock, and submitted, in 1853 and 1865, to the State. Among the most
interesting of these slabs, as one passes through the room, is the large
horizontal stone at the left, marked with the tracks of the great " Oto-
132 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
zoum." It was found at Mount Tom station ; and on the table beside
it is the reverse of the impression. This enormous animal had the bulk
of an elephant and the build of a toad. On the wall, behind the bust of
President Hitchcock, is a set of specimens which prove the animals
making these tracks to have been quadrupeds. The marks show the
fore-feet, the trace of the tail and the hind-feet, with imprints of the heels,
as if the animal had crouched down on the soft mud. On the stairway
wall is another interesting stone, which has the footprints of an animal
that had lost one of its toes, the impressions showing first a two-toed,
and then a three-toed foot. In the first wall case are the only bones of
the track-making animals ever found in Massachusetts. The next slab
at the left, standing on edge, shows impressions of the feet of an enor-
mous animal, the tracks being a foot long, and between them running a
great tail-trace. The large, framed slab has interest because it was used
a long time as a flagstone. Near it hangs the egg and leg-bones of an
existing bird of New Zealand. They were placed there at the time the
track-making animals were thought to be birds : at the present time
they are generally believed to have been reptiles.
The next slab is marked by the feet of an enormous three-toed bird ;
the imprints will hold a gallon of water, and are three times the size of
those of an elephant. The central one of the side rooms contains, on
the walls and tables, a collection of slabs remarkable for the great variety
of insect tracks. More insect tracks and the most perfect footprint of
a reptile, ever found, are in the last side room. The footprint shows
plainly all the wrinkles of the epidermis of a three-toed foot. Under
the windows in this room are stones marked by rain-drops, one of them
showing the steps of a lizard-like reptile, who turned a sharp corner in
his haste, throwing his tail outside of the row of his footprints. There
are several specimens of what President Hitchcock designated as " stone
books " here. They show the same footprint through a number of
layers of stone, and when split open form a book, the leaves of which
fit into one another.
The Gilbert Museum of Indian relics is placed in the first of the
three small rooms. There are four hundred specimens of the stone
implements used by the North American Indians, especially those of
the Connecticut Valley. The collection took the name of the Hon.
George H. Gilbert of Ware, who contributed largely toward the expense
of gathering it.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 135
Passing out of the main entrance of the Cabinet, the brick building
at the right is
The South College Dormitory. This is the oldest building on the
college grounds, originally containing both recitation and living rooms.
Its corner-stone was laid in the summer of 1820 by the trustees of
Amherst Academy, and the building completed in a little more than
three months, the dedication occurring in September of the year follow-
ing. The institution was then known as the Amherst Charitable Insti-
tution. Noah Webster, president of the Academy, and afterward
president of the trustees of the Institution, delivered the oration at
the laying of the corner-stone. The building is 100 feet long and
30 wide, and cost $10,000, raised by subscription. Much of the
material used in the construction was contributed by persons living in
Amherst and the neighboring towns, even at the distance of twenty-five
miles. On one occasion these acceptable gifts were received just as
work was about to be suspended for want of material to carry it on. At
present the building contains thirty-two double rooms. In the summer
of 1891 extensive alterations were made in this building, steam heat
and other improvements being introduced, and the suites of rooms so
arranged that each student might have a well-lighted bedroom ; provis-
ions made to accommodate three or four students who desire to occupy
a common room as a study. The views from the windows of some of
the upper rooms are magnificent.
The College Chapel, next to the South College Dormitory, was built
in 1827, and bore for some time the name of Adam Johnson of Pelham,
who bequeathed money for its erection. The suits at law conducted by
the college authorities to establish the validity of the will reduced the
legacy to $4000, and 11,000 had to be raised from other sources.
The building measures 100 by 56 feet. For many years it accom-
modated all the departments of instruction in the College. Dr. Tyler
says that beside the Chapel proper, the " building originally contained
four recitation rooms, a room for philosophical apparatus, and a cabinet
for minerals on the ground-floor, two recitation rooms on the second
floor, a library on the third floor, and a laboratory in the basement."
The basement was the chemical workshop of Professor Hitchcock,
afterward president of the College. The arrangements have been very
little altered since then. The two rooms on the second floor form
now the small chapel, and the rooms above are seldom used. In the
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HE It ST.
main chapel, morning prayers are held. The seniors are assigned the
seats in the centre of the room hall, the juniors on their right, and
the sophomores on their left. The gallery is for the freshmen and
In favorable weather the ascent of the College Chapel tower will repay
the visitor. There are ninety-eight steps to climb, and the summit com-
mands a magnificent view of the Connecticut Valley. The stone step
Woods Cabinet and Observatory.
in the main doorway of the building is 358 feet above sea-level. The
clock in the tower was presented "by L. H. McCormick, '81. The
The North College Dormitory, was built in 1822, after the same
plan as South College. Until the erection of the Chapel, daily prayers
were held in rooms in the building. Its cost was $10,000. Whenever
the demand for rooms warrants, this building will be altered in the same
manner as was South College. On the knoll, in front of the North
College Dormitory, is situated
The Woods Cabinet, with the College Observatory and the geological
lecture rooms adjoining. The building stands upon the site of the first
meeting-house of the First Congregational Society. The Cabinet and
the Observatory were built in 1847 at a cost f $9> which was raised
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. H 1
by subscription, the name of Hon. J. B. Woods of Enfield being given
to the Cabinet, and that of Hon. Abbott Lawrence to the Observatory,
in recognition of their bequests to the College. The geological lecture
room was added in 1855, and cost Siooo ; and two years afterward
Enos Dickinson of South Amherst gave the Dickinson Nineveh Gallery,
which for twenty-seven years held the sculptured slabs now in the hall-
way of the College Library. The collections in this building cover the
whole subject of geology and mineralogy. The main room on the lower
floor contains a collection valued at $10,000, illustrating the geology
of the Western Hemisphere, with particularly complete collections from
Massachusetts and Connecticut. The large collection of minerals in
trays is not open to public inspection. On the second floor is the Shep-
ard collection of meteorolites, and in the gallery a very large collection
illustrating the geology of the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Observatory consists of an octagonal tower, 50 feet high and 17
feet in diameter, with a revolving dome and a central pedestal supporting
a telescope with an aperture of 7^ inches and a focal lens of 8 inches.
The telescope was presented by Hon. Rufus Bullock of Boston, and
cost Si 800. In the transit room, 13 by 15, is a transit circle built by
Gambey of Paris, the telescope having a focal length of about 3 feet
and an aperture of 2\ inches.
Pratt Field, on Northampton and Orchard streets, about a quarter
of a mile from the college buildings, comprises about thirteen acres of
land presented for athletic purposes in 1890 by Fred B. Pratt, of
Brooklyn, a graduate of the class of 1887. The field is laid out with
a quarter-mile oval track, a hundred-yards straight-away track, and a
short track for jumping. A handsome grand-stand, designed by
William B. Tubby of New York, and having a seating capacity of
six hundred, was erected in 1891 at the west end of the oval. It
contains ample conveniences for the use of the college teams, including
dressing-rooms and baths. Other portions of the field are to be laid out
for lawn tennis and other out-of-door sports. The entire field cost
about S 2 0,000, of which about $9000 was the price of the grand-
stand, all being the gift of Mr. Pratt.
Hallock Park, on the opposite side of the railroad cut, belongs to
the College : most of it was a gift of Leavitt H. Hallock, of the class
On the further side of Snell Street is Blake Field, which for many
H 2 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
years was the only athletic field of the College. To Lucien I. Blake,
of the class of 1877, belongs the credit of acquiring this field. In
1876 he gathered about $900 from the alumni of the College, paying
the $600 additional in a mortgage in the name of the athletic associa-
tion. In 1890 this debt was assumed by the trustees. The first athletic
field of the College is now included in Pratt Field. It was sold to the
Massachusetts Railroad, who at first proposed to lay their track through
it, and recently re-purchased.
THE FRATERNITY HOUSES.
Nine of the many Greek-letter fraternities of the country are repre-
sented among Amherst College students. In order of their establish-
ment here, they are : Alpha Delta Phi, Psi Upsilon, Delta Kappa
Epsilon, Delta Upsilon, Chi Psi, Chi Phi, Beta Theta Pi, Theta Delta
Chi, and Phi Delta Theta. This number is probably larger in pro-
portion to the size of the College, than can be found at any similar
institution in the United States ; but notwithstanding this, the college
authorities are unanimous in believing that Amherst has been benefited,
intellectually and socially, by the presence of these fraternities. Thus
far, any well-recognized fraternity has found its efforts to establish a
chapter at Amherst warmly seconded by the faculty, although, on
account of the rapid increase during the last few years, it is hardly
probable that this policy will be continued. During the few years
directly following the establishment of the earlier chapters, the senti-
ment of the College generally opposed the idea of secrecy, and the
open literary and debating clubs were very formidable rivals for society
honors. At the present time the open societies have disappeared, with
one exception, and more than eighty-two per cent of all the members
of the College belong to the Greek-letter fraternities. The actual
numbers of students in college and members of the fraternities, since
1889, when the last chapter was established here, are shown by the
accompanying table :
STUDENTS IN MEMBERS OF
'1888-89 358 299
1889-90 344 281
1890-91 352 289
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 147
The following letter of Ex- President Julius H. Seelye, printed in the
Century Magazine for September, 1889, gives an admirable idea of the
advantages of the societies to their members, as well as of their position
and relations to the College :
" Others can give a more accurate opinion than I upon college fraternities else-
where; but so far as Amherst is concerned there can be only a favorable judgment
concerning them by any one well informed. Without a doubt they exercise here a
wholesome energy, both upon their individual members and upon the College. Com-
bination is strength, whether with young men or old; and where men combine for
good ends, better results may, of course, be looked for than where the same ends are
sought by individuals alone.
" Now the aim of these societies is certainly good. They are not formed for
pleasure simply, though they are one of the most fruitful sources of pleasure in a
student's college life. Their first aim is the improvement of their members, im-
provement in literary culture and manly character. They are all of them literary
societies. An effort was made not long since to introduce among us a new society,
with prominently social, rather than literary aims; but it not only failed to receive
the requisite assent of the president of the College, but was not favored by any con-
siderable number of the students, many of whom stoutly opposed it.
" One of the happiest features of society life at Amherst is connected with the
society houses. There are no better residences in the village than these, and none
are better kept. They are not extravagant, but they are neat and tasteful; they have
pleasant grounds surrounding them ; the cost of rooms in them is not greater than
the average cost in other houses, and they not only furnish the students occupying
them a pleasant home, but the care of the home and its surroundings is itself a culture.
" There need be no objection to these societies on account of their secrecy. The
secrecy is largely in name; it is, in fact, little more than the privacy proper to the
most familiar intercourse of families and friends. Treated as the societies are among
us, and occupying the ground they do, no mischief comes from their secrecy. Instead
of promoting cliques and cabals, in point of fact we find less of these than the history
of the College shows before the societies came. The rivalry between them is a
healthy one, and is conducted openly and in a manly way.
" The societies must give back to the College the tone they have first received. I
am persuaded that in any college where the prevailing life is true and earnest, the
societies fed by its fountain will send back bright and quickening streams. They
certainly give gladness and refreshment to our whole college life at Amherst."
All of the fraternities represented at Amherst have chapter houses,
and in most cases own them. These buildings are large enough to
accommodate at least a portion of the members beside providing parlors,
reading-rooms, and a lodge room for general use. The chapters of
Chi Psi, Psi Upsilon, and Alpha Delta Phi now own the entire southern
I4 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
end of the square bounded by the village Common, Northampton Street,
and South Prospect.
The members of the fraternities are usually glad to welcome their
friends for the inspection of the houses at any time, excepting only
on Tuesday evenings, which are universally observed as " society
Presuming that visitors to Amherst have acquaintances in each
fraternity ready to become their hosts, the following order will be found
convenient for a tour of the houses :
The Delta Kappa Epsilon (Sigma Chapter) house is situated on
Oak Grove Hill, Lessey Street, a short walk east from the Amherst
House. The original portion of the house and the grounds were pur-
chased by the chapter in 1885, and the new part added the same year.
Together they now accommodate eighteen students. The Delta Kappa
Epsilon fraternity was founded in 1844 at Yale University, and in 1890
had thirty-one chapters and about eight thousand members. The
Amherst Chapter was organized in 1846, the original members being
six students of the class of 1848. The quarters of the chapter have
been successively in North College, Cook's Block, and the present
dwelling-house of W. H. H. Morgan on Maple Avenue. The chapter
has thirty-four active and more than five hundred alumni members,
among the more prominent of these latter being General F. A. Walker,
president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Judge I. H.
Maynard, assistant secretary of the Treasury in President Cleveland's
administration ; Charles Hallock, editor of Forest and Stream ; Mel-
vil Dewey, librarian of the State of New York ; Rufus G. Kellogg, donor
of the Kellogg prizes in Amherst College.
Returning to the Amherst House, and proceeding in the direction of
the College, at the right are the
Alpha Delta Phi (Amherst Chapter) houses, which occupy the lot
on the corner of Pleasant and Sellen streets, and extending back to
North Prospect Street. The new house was erected in 1890, and is a
three-story and basement building, the materials used being Elyria
sandstone, pressed brick, and terra cotta. On the first floor are drawing,
banquet, and reading rooms ; while the two upper floors furnish accom-
modations for eighteen members of the chapter. The house stands
some distance back from the street, and faces the village Common. The
chapter also owns the lot of land in the rear of this house, fronting on
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 153
South Prospect Street. The old house stands in the rear of the new
one, facing the side street. Originally a dwelling-house, it was pur-
chased by the society in 1874. It was the first chapter house to be
established in Amherst, and contains rooms for sixteen students. The
Alpha Delta Phi fraternity was established in 1832, by Samuel Eels, and
has a membership of over five thousand. The Amherst Chapter was
the first chapter of a Greek-letter fraternity to be established at Amherst,
and its total membership is a little over five hundred. The active
membership of the chapter averages about thirty-three.
Among the alumni of the chapter the names of Rev. Henry Ward
Beecher, Rev. Roswell Dwight Hitchcock, Rt. Rev. Frederic Dan Hunt-
ington, Rev. Richard Salter Storrs, Rev. Edward Hitchcock (president
of Amherst College from 1845 to I ^54)> Hon. John E. Sanford, and
Rev. E. Winchester Donald are prominent. Next to the Alpha Delta
Phi houses, and facing the village Common, is the
Psi Upsilon (Gamma Chapter) house. The building was erected as a
residence for the first president of the College, Rev. Zephaniah S. Moore,
and was the "President's House" until 1833. Its corner-stone was
laid by Noah Webster, and the trustees of " The Collegiate Charitable
Institution," September 18, 1821, directly following the inauguration of
President Moore and the dedication of South College. It was bought
by the chapter in August, 1879, an d now accommodates fourteen stu-
dents. The Gamma Chapter was established in 1841, by sixteen mem-
bers of the classes of 1842, 1843, anc ^ 1844. For some years it was
virtually a junior class society. The first rooms were in South College ;
and later, after one or two changes, in Cutler's Block. This latter
building was burned July 3, 1879, destroying nearly all the possessions
of the chapter. In 1890 the chapter bought the adjoining estate on the
corner of the Common and Northampton Street, intending to erect here
a second building. The Psi Upsilon fraternity was founded at Union
College in 1833, and in 1891 had 17 chapters and about 7000 mem-
bers. In that year the Gamma Chapter had 38 active members and
425 living alumni, among whom are Ex-President Julius H. Seelye of
Amherst College, Dr. Charles H. Parkhurst of New York, Ex-Governor
Andrews of Connecticut, Hon. George B. Loring of Washington, Arthur
S. Hardy of Hanover, N.H., Professor Herbert B. Adams of Johns
Hopkins University, President H. H. Goodell of the Massachusetts
Agricultural College, and Henry D. Hyde, Esq., of Boston.
154 THE HANDBOOK OF AM II ERST.
On the corner of Northampton and South Prospect streets, adjoining
the grounds of the Psi Upsilon Chapter, is the
Chi Psi (Alpha Chi) Lodge, erected in 1884, after plans made by
Robert S. Stephenson of New York. The Alpha was founded in
November, 1864, by members of the classes of 1864, 1865, and 1866,
and owns, in addition to the lot on which the house is situated, the estate
in the rear, known as the Burt place. The membership is small, rarely
exceeding six men from each class. The Chi Psi fraternity was founded
at Union College in 1841, and has Alphas in sixteen colleges, embracing
in their membership about three thousand men. The lodge contains
rooms for thirteen members, beside ample parlors, library, and room for
fraternity purposes. The fraternity is represented in public life by
Chief Justice Fuller, Ex-Speaker T. B. Reed, J. Sterling Morton, and Ex-
Postmaster General Dickinson, and among other members are Commo-
dore Elbridge T. Gerry, Hugh Cole, Esq., Francis M. Scott, Frederick
D. Tappan, William Astor of New York, General Duane, late Chief of
Engineers, U. S. A., President Thomas W. Palmer of the Columbian
Exposition, President Brainard of Middlebury College, and Robert Earl
of the New York Court of Appeals.
On the right, further down Northampton Street, stands the
Theta Delta Chi (Mu Deuteron Charge) house, which was pur-
chased by the charge in 1889, and an addition made in the summer
of 1890. The charge was founded in 1885, by twenty-four members
of the classes of 1885, 1886, 1887, and 1888, and for five years occu-
pied the second and third stories of Dickinson's, and the adjoining
block, Pleasant Street. The present house accommodates twenty stu-
dents, and the membership of the charge in 1891 was thirty-five under-
graduates and fifty-one alumni.
The Theta Delta Chi fraternity was founded at Union College in
1846, and comprised, in 1891, nineteen charges. Before the war the
fraternity was very strong in the Southern States, but it is now repre-
sented in that section almost solely by its alumni.
Returning to the corner of Northampton Street, and crossing the
Common, the building on the left corner of College Street is the
Beta Theta Pi (Beta Iota Chapter) house, purchased for a chap-
ter house in 1886, and accommodating twenty of the members. The
chapter grew out of a local society, the "Torch and Crown," which
was founded in 1878 by members of the class of 1881, and in the fall
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 157
of 1879 occupied the present Theta Delta Chi chapter house, on
Northampton Street. .The " Torch and Crown " received a charter from
the Beta Theta Pi fraternity in 1883, and was made a chapter of that
fraternity. In 1891 the fraternity had sixty chapters, and over nine
hundred and fifty undergraduate members.
Among its prominent members are Secretary of the Interior, John W.
Noble ; Justices James M. Harlan, Stanley Matthews, and William B.
Woods, of the Supreme Court of the United States ; besides ten United
States senators, forty United States representatives, fifteen State gov-
ernors, and six ministers to foreign countries.
Proceeding down College Street, the second house at the left is the
Chi Phi (Phi Chapter) house, built in 1885 by the chapter, then of
nine years' standing. The building is of the Queen Anne style, and
furnishes apartments for eleven students. From the time of the organ-
ization of the chapter until the present house was completed, the head-
quarters were in Palmer's Block, which once occupied the site of the
town hall. The Chi Phi fraternity was founded in 1854, at Princeton
College, and now has twenty-two chapters. Among the one hundred
and sixty alumni and active members of the Phi Chapter are Hon.
Henry Stockbridge, '77, of Baltimore, Md., and the Rev. H. H. Kelsey,
'76, of Boston, who had much to do with the institution of the chapter.
Further -down this street, and opposite the home of Ex-President
Seelye, is the
Phi Delta Theta (Massachusetts Beta) house. The chapter was
founded May 9, 1888, with twenty- three members from the classes then
in college, and at once leased its present building and grounds of their
owner, Professor W. C. Esty, securing the right of future ownership. It
was the sixty-fifth chapter of the fraternity, which was founded at Miami
in 1848. During the War of the Rebellion the chapter-roll was reduced
to five ; and two of these were the causes of the reawakening of the
fraternity. The organization is controlled by a general council and
province presidents, whose power is absolute within their spheres, a
convention of the chapters once in two years, and a province conven-
tion once in two years. In 1891 there were sixty-six undergraduate and
twenty-four alumni chapters, the whole membership being 6803 under-
graduates and alumni. The fraternity numbers among its members
Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States.
The only remaining fraternity house is situated on South Pleasant
158 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
Street, and to reach it the visitor should return to the corner of North-
ampton Street, and pass College Hall, the Library, and dwelling-houses,
on the way to the Central Massachusetts station.
The Delta Upsilon (Amherst Chapter) house was purchased in 1882,
thirty-five years after the founding of the chapter. The rooms first
occupied were in South, and later in North, College. The chapter was
re-established in 1869, a hall being fitted up in Palmer's Block, which
stood on the site of the town hall. Four years after, the chapter moved
to quarters in Kellogg's Block, where a hall and several suites of rooms
were occupied by the members, until the present house was entered.
The Delta Upsilon fraternity was founded in 1834 at Williams College,
and the Amherst Chapter in 1891 numbered twenty- nine active and
334 alumni members. Among the latter are : Rev. George Washburn,
president of Robert College, Constantinople ; Rev. Daniel Bliss, presi-
dent of the Protestant College at Beirout, Syria ; William Swinton, author
of Swinton's educational works; Rev. Hiram C. Hayden, president of
Adelbert College, Cleveland, O.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. l6l
THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
HIS TORICAL NO TES PRESENT CONDI TIOXS THE EXPERIMEN T
STATIONS A GLANCE AT THE BUILDINGS.
THE Massachusetts Agricultural College was one of the first institu-
tions of its kind to be founded in the United States. By an act
passed July, 1862, Congress granted to each State a portion of the
public lands, the money from the sale of which, it was provided, should
go toward establishing and maintaining at least one college where " the
leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific studies, and
including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are
related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in order to promote the
liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several
pursuits and professions of life." The State legislature formally accepted
this grant April 18, 1863, and afterward set aside one-third of it for the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Boston. The trustees for the
Massachusetts Agricultural College were incorporated by an act of April
29, 1863, and they found their share of the Congressional grant to be
360,000 acres of land, which afterward yielded $146,000. The corpora-
tion organized with Governor Andrew as president, A. W. Dodge, Esq.,
vice-president, and Charles L. Flint, secretary; but in 1864 the legisla-
ture changed the legal name of the institution to the Massachusetts
Agricultural College, and Hon. Henry E. French of Cambridge was
elected president, the Governor remaining an ex-officio member of the
board of trustees. The question of the location of the College provoked
much discussion among the parties interested. The decision came when
the town of Amherst promised $50,000, and sufficient land at a reason-
able rate, the trustees accepting the offer May 25, 1864, and the Gov-
ernor and Council approving the choice soon after. The present estate
of the College 383^- acres was then purchased at a cost, including
the buildings then standing, of about 43,000. The erection of the first
college buildings was authorized by the trustees May 26, 1866. In this
year President French resigned, and was succeeded by the Hon. Paul
A. Chadbourne, who in his turn retired the following year because of ill
1 62 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HERS T.
health. The work of the trustees up to this time had been simply pre-
paratory to the opening of the College, and, therefore, the list of actual
presidents may be said to commence with President Clark, who suc-
ceeded President Chadbourne. The terms of office of the presidents
were as follows :
Colonel William S. Clark, Ph.D., LL.D 1867-1877
Charles Louis Flint, A.M., LL.B . 1879-1880
Hon. Levi Stockbridge 1880-1882
Hon. Paul Ansel Chadbourne (Second Term) 1882-1883
James Carruthers Greenough, M.A 1883-1886
President Henry Hill Goodell was the acting president during six
months of 1883, and in July, 1886, was elected to the position which
he still holds.
The College was opened for students October 2, 1867, the entering
class numbering thirty-three. The instructors numbered four. Before
the close of the term there were fourteen more students.
The faculty comprised, in 1891, twelve members exclusive of the
president. This body has the general direction of the College in
matters relating to the curriculum and to discipline.
The State Board of Agriculture constitutes a board of overseers
of the College, and through their special committees make frequent
examinations of the work and condition of the institution. Their
annual reports are submitted to the legislature, and are published as
The degree of Bachelor of Science is awarded to successful graduates,
the governor of the Commonwealth signing the diploma. By a special
arrangement between the authorities of the College and the Boston
University, the former has become the Agricultural Department of
the University, and receives its students in that science. Students
of the Agricultural are permitted to matriculate with the University, and
on graduation may receive its degree of Bachelor of Science, in addition
to that of the College, thus obtaining the privileges of alumni in both
institutions. A military diploma is granted at the discretion of the
professor of military science and tactics.
The course of study at the College is entirely prescribed, and is
largely scientific in its nature. There are ample provisions, however,
for the study of literature and the languages.
Generous financial aids are offered to students who wish to obtain an
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
education at a small expense. As nearly all the scholarship funds of
the College have been established by the legislature, students coming
from homes within Massachusetts are favored before those from other
States. In addition to the following specified sums, $5000 is devoted
each year to the payment of those who perform work in the various
departments. About $120 is given annually in prizes. The scholar-
ships are : eighty State scholarships, established by the legislature of
1886, $10,000; fourteen Congressional, established by the trustees,
$1120; private bequests (the income of $3000) amounting to 5150.
Application for one of the State scholarships is made to the State senator
of the district in which the student resides ; and for a Congressional
scholarship, to the representative to Congress.
The necessary expenditures of a student in college are estimated as
closely as possible in the accompanying table. It is assumed in these
that the student actually pays for each item, any beneficiary money which
may be credited to him by the College, or any other means which may
be adopted to reduce the cost of an education, not being taken into
consideration. It is believed that the estimate in the " Least " column
may be followed without injurious deprivation of any kind. The students
are required to room in the college dormitories, and with a room-mate ;
the items of rent, furniture, fuel, and light are reduced by being shared.
The actual cost of these items to each student is therefore entered in the
estimates. In the rent of the higher-priced rooms, steam heat is included.
Books and Stationery ....
Furniture (annual average) .
Board . .
Fuel and Light
Society and Class Taxts . . .
Boston University Course . .
* Each of these items occur only once during the college course, and are not included in the totals.
1 66 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
The military department of the College is under the direction of an
officer of the United States army, detailed to the position by the Secre-
tary of War. Instruction in military drill tactics is made one of the
requirements of the College by the act of Congress providing for the
establishment of the institution. Each student, not physically incapaci-
tated, is thus under the surveillance of the commandant. The cadet
battalion, organized with four companies, is officered by the students of
the -upper classes ; and the drills are held three times each week.
Recitations upon the tactics and the art of war, and practical instruc-
tion in target, artillery, and mortar practice are features of the depart-
ment. During the sessions of the College, the rooms of all the students
are inspected once a week by the commandant. Most of the arms
and ammunition used in the battalion are provided by the United
States. The military diploma, awarded by the commandant at the sat-
isfactory completion of the college course, recommends the receiver
to an office if volunteer troops are ever called for by the State author-
Connected with the Agricultural College in their aims, yet distinct in
organization and work, are the State Agricultural Experiment Station
and the Hatch Experiment Station. These are so nicely arranged that
they supplement each other in their experiments, neither one attempting
the same line of investigations as the other, although in several instances
the same person is in charge of similar departments in the College and
in both of the stations. This plan lessens the necessary expenses, and
increases the funds available in every department of experiment, resulting
in unusually large returns in proportion to the outlay. The organizations
of the two departments are here given.
The Massachusetts State Agricultural Experiment Station was
established in 1882, by an act of the legislature, passed May 12 of that
year. The Station was located at the State Agricultural College, forty-
eight acres of land being leased from the College, and its management
was vested in a board of control of seven members, the governor of the
Commonwealth being president ex offido. The sum of $3000 was first
appropriated for equipping the new station, and $5000 a year thereafter
granted for its maintenance. This annual grant was increased in 1885
to $10,000. The objects of the investigations of the Station were fully
set forth in the original act as follows : " The causes, prevention, and
remedies of the diseases of domestic animals, plants, and trees. The
-111 I II ;
** -- j R;
THE CHAPEL AND LIBRARY.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST. 169
history and habits of insects destructive to vegetation, and the means of
abating them. The manufacture and composition of both foreign and
domestic fertilizers, their several values, and their adaptability to dif-
ferent crops and soils. The values, under all conditions, as food, for all
farm animals, for various purposes, of the several forage, grain, and root
crops. The comparative value of green and dry forage, and the cost
of producing and reserving it in the best condition. The adulteration
of any articles of food intended for use of men or animals ; and in any
other subjects which may be deemed advantageous to the agriculture
and horticulture of the Commonwealth."
After the organization of the Board of Control of the Experiment
Station, Charles A. Goessmann, Ph.D., LL.D., was elected director and
chemist, which positions he has held ever since. The director has six
trained assistants in the chemical work and one in the field. The mem-
bership of the Board of Control was increased in 1888 to eleven. They
are elected for terms of years, two from the members of the State
Board of Agriculture, two from the Board of Trustees of the State Agri-
cultural College, one from the Massachusetts Society for promoting
Agriculture, one from the Massachusetts State Grange, and one from
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, appointed by the respective
organizations, and the president of the State Agricultural College, the
director of the Station, and the secretary of the State Board of Agricul-
ture. This Board of Control submits to the legislature, through the
director of the Station, an annual report of its investigations, twenty-five
thousand copies of which have been printed each year since 1889. The
Station also issues occasional bulletins of ten thousand copies each, and
monthly statements of official analyses of commercial fertilizers during
the months of April and October of every year.
The work at the Experiment Station is limited only by the amount
of money available. Each new source of revenue opens a corresponding
channel of investigation. The annual income amounts to $16,500, of
which $10,000 is received from the State, $5000 from the Hatch Experi-
ment Station in return for doing the entire chemical work of that insti-
tution, and about $1500 from certificates issued to dealers in commercial
fertilizers as required by law.
The grounds of the State Experiment Station are leased from the
Agricultural College, at merely nominal rental, for a period of ninety-
nine years, and comprise forty-eight and one-half acres, of which ten
I/O THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
are woodland. Seventeen and three-quarters acres are on the west side
of the county highway, and thirty and a half on the east side.
The buildings of the Station are valued as follows :
Chemical Laboratory (with fixtures) $15,000
Agricultural and Physical Laboratory (two) 12,000
Barn and Feeding Stables (with fixtures) 6,000
The Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural
College was organized in 1887 under the provisions of the Hatch act,
which passed Congress and was approved by the President, March 2,
of that year. The act established experiment stations in all the States
and Territories of the Union, with the object of promoting " scientific
investigation and experiment, and the principle and application of agri-
cultural science." For each station the annual appropriation of $15,000
was granted ; of the first year's income, not more than twenty per cent,
and the years following, not more than five per cent, of this sum might
be used for erecting buildings for the Station. The president of the
Agricultural College, Henry H. Goodell, A.M., was elected director, and
Frank E. Paige, of Amherst, treasurer of the Station, which positions
they have held ever since. The departments of the Station, as now
established, are Agriculture, Horticulture, Entomology, and Meteorology.
The Station is always engaged in investigations important to the farmer
and other classes in the State. Quarterly bulletins of about eleven
thousand copies are issued. Of the annual income, $5000 is paid by
the Station to the chemical department of the State Experiment Station,
where all the work of that kind is performed. The property of the
Hatch Experiment Station is divided among the various departments
as follows :
Agricultural (barn) $4000
Horticultural (greenhouses) 2800
Entomological (insectary) 2000
Meteorological (apparatus) 1800
THE COLLEGE BUILDINGS.
The Agricultural College is situated on North Pleasant Street,
about a. mile from the village of Amherst. Lying upon the western
slope of Mount Pleasant, it overlooks the entire Connecticut Valley,
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 173
within the boundaries of the prehistoric lake. The extensive grounds
are always admirably kept, and the buildings offer many things of in-
terest to the visitor. The distance is convenient for a pleasant walk or
drive, and as the institution has been considered by the leading agricul-
turists who have visited it from the United States and Europe, as the
finest in this country, it certainly should not be neglected.
In making the tour of the college buildings, it will be found most
convenient to enter the grounds by the way of Amity Street and Lincoln
Avenue, or by North Pleasant Street, in either case commencing with
the college barn, at the left, and following the course marked out in this
The first building to be noticed is the
College Barn, built in 1869, and altered to its present form in 1889 ;
valued at $14,500. The building contains the specimens used for
illustration in the department of agriculture in the College. For this
purpose there are typical specimens of farm stock, representing the
different breeds of horned cattle and swine, a valuable stallion, and a
small flock of sheep. The apparatus for farm work is very complete.
The building is so neatly kept as to be attractive even to persons who
have no special connection with agricultural affairs. In the manage-
ment of the college farm it is intended to illustrate the systems and
methods best suited to the conditions of this locality, and in all the
operations the possible educational effect is kept prominently in view.
While labor on the farm is not compulsory, not a little is performed by
the students, and every opportunity is given to any who specially desire
instruction in any particular line of farm work to obtain it. The dwell-
ing-house adjoining the barn is occupied by the superintendent of the
college farm and his assistants.
Some distance southward from these buildings, and just beyond the
boundaries of the college grounds, is the D. G. K. Society house. This
was bought in 1891, from Professor C. D. Warner, whose residence
The next building is the
Drill Hall, erected in 1883, at an expenditure of $6500, a legislative
appropriation for the purpose. The Armory, at the right of the entrance,
contains the arms furnished by the State to the college corps of cadets.
The main hall is 123 feet long and 48 feet wide, and has an asphalt
floor. It is heated by a hot- water system, introduced in 1888. This
1/4 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
comfortable winter quarters of the corps is used by the students as a
gymnasium. The second floor of the building contains the command-
ant's office, and a recitation room for the classes in military-tactics
science. A short stairway leads into the tower of the building. On
the campus adjoining this building are earthworks for use in mortar
practice a part of the regular military training of the College.
On the right is the
College Chapel, completed in 1886, at a cost of $31,000, which was
provided for the purpose by special legislative appropriations. The
material used in construction is Pelham granite, with brownstone trim-
mings. The two entrances at the south end of the building lead into
the alumni headquarters, and by winding staircases to the hall above.
The college library occupies the main portion of the lower floor. This
contained, in 1891, about ten hundred volumes, and its rate of increase
during the past three years has been twelve hundred .volumes annually.
The president's office is situated on this floor. The second story forms
a hall capable of seating six hundred people, and here the Sunday ser-
vices of the College, and the commencement exercises are held. The
building is heated by steam and lighted by electricity.
The South College Dormitory, beyond, was first built in 1867, and
contained several recitation rooms and the college library. On February
4, 1885, it was destroyed by fire, and rebuilt in 1886, at a cost of
$37,000, a special appropriation by the legislature. The building is
brick, three stories in height, and contains twenty suites of double
rooms for students. The south wing overlooks the college campus and
parade ground. In the north wing are recitation rooms and the museum
of the biological department. The collection in this museum contains
representatives of every type of American animal, and is valued at about
$3500. The office of the Hatch Experiment Station is in the tower of
The meteorological observatory of the Hatch Experiment Station is
also located in the tower. The observatory was established by money
granted under the Hatch Experiment Stations act of Congress, and it
is modelled as nearly as possible after the Central Park observatory in
New York City. Observations were commenced by Professor C. D.
Warner, the first and present director, on January i, 1889. The instru-
ments in use are all of the Draper self-recording pattern, which ordi-
narily require the attention of the observer not oftener than once a week.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
The most important of them is the electrograph, which was constructed
after Professor Warner's design by Elliott Brothers, London, England.
It measures the electric potential of the atmosphere, and keeps a record
by a delicate and continuous photographic process. The instrument,
when received by the observatory in October, 1890, was considered the
most delicate and the most complicated ever constructed.
The instruments in the observatory, and their cost, are as follows :
Mercurial barometer 250
Sun thermometer 175
Direction of wind 1 75
Force of wind 1 75
monthly and an-
nual bulletins of
and these are sent
to any one who
applies for them.
In 1890 the
tion of the bulle-
400. Next is
North College Dormitory, completed in the fall of 1868. Its cost
was $36,000, and sixty- four students may be accommodated in it. The
college reading-room is on the first floor.
Just behind this building is the
Laboratory Building, the first of the college buildings, erected in
1867. Originally a two-story building, it has been altered, now being
valued at $10,360. It now contains the chapel, used for morning
prayers, the laboratory of the zoological department, and a part of the
The Laboratory Building.
178 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
chemical department, on the first floor ; the rooms of the mathematical,
physical, and chemical departments, on the second ; and an interesting
collection of agricultural implements from Japan in the third. This last
story was formerly the drill hall of the cadet battalion, and is now used
as a museum until a special building is erected.
Across the ravine is the residence of the college pastor, and next to
it is a
Boarding-House, built by the College in 1868, costing $8000. For
a number of years it was managed by the college authorities, but in
1891 was in the hands of a boarding-club of sixty students. The house
accommodates the family in charge of the practical details.
The Barn, of the Hatch Experiment Station, is in the rear of the
boarding-house. Built in 1889, and costing $4000, it is used for experi-
ments in feeding farm stock, and in other matters of importance to the
farmer. The building was burned in the spring of 1891 and immedi-
Following the road as it completes the circle of the college grounds,
the visitor finds himself before the
Chemical Laboratory of the State Experiment Station, built of brick
and sandstone. It faces to the south. The main building is two stories
in height, measures 30 by 42 feet, and has a tower projecting from the
southeast corner. Two parallel wings, each one story high and 32 feet
long by 19 feet wide, join the rear of the building. The main house
contains, on the ground-floor, the director's office, assistants' room, two
small weighing-rooms, and passages leading into the wings, which are
used as laboratories. Of the rooms on the upper floor, one is occupied
by the assistants, and the other three are used for storing collections
illustrating various agricultural industries. The building was erected in
1883, after plans suggested by the director, and made by E. A. Ellsworth,
a graduate of the College. Its cost was $15,000, including the apparatus
it contains. Of this sum, $11,500 was a legislative appropriation, the
rest coming from the regular income of the Station. The entire chemi-
cal work of both the Massachusetts State and the Hatch Experiment
stations is carried on in this laboratory.
The Farmhouse and barn of the State Experiment Station are situ-
ated about one hundred and fifty yards north of the chemical laboratory,
and are valued together at $8000. The house and main barn were built
before the farm passed into the hands of the State, and has been re-
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. l8l
modelled from time to time since. Here resides the farmer of the
Station, who is in general charge of the farm work under the superin-
tendence of the director. The barn contains the seed-room, grain-
room, silos, scales for weighing the crops, and live stock. In 1886 the
feeding-stable and first wing were added, and shortly after another stable
and wing of the same size were built in the rear of the first. Experi-
ments in feeding and digestion that have been carried on here are
among the most important to farmers of all that the Station has under-
taken. A visit to the barn cannot fail to be of interest. Everything is
kept in most perfect order and neatness. The buildings are subject to
frequent change, depending upon the nature of the questions under
investigation. The creamery attached to the barn was built in 1887,
and the ice-house of one hundred tons' capacity was erected at the same
Just across the town highway from the Chemical Laboratory stands the
Agricultural and Physical Laboratory of the State Experiment
Station, a brick building, two and a half stories high, with brownstone
trimmings, and a frontage of forty feet, and a depth of thirty-five feet.
This was the first building in this country erected for the special purpose
of studying the more intricate questions of plant growth with reference
to agricultural plants, and the relation of fungus growth to plant dis-
eases. iMvas completed early in 1890, at a cost of $10,000, appropri-
ated by the State legislature. Its outfit cost nearly $3000. The second
floors are divided into four, of equal size each. The lower floor is
devoted to microscopic investigations. It contains an office with two
laboratories and a photographic studio, supplied with an overhead rail-
road for bringing large plants from the shed to the camera. The second
story is occupied by the assistant superintendent of the field and feeding
experiments. He has an office, and a chemical laboratory for studying
the physiological condition of the soil, and a private apartment. In the
rear of the building, and connecting with it, is a covered shed, twenty-
five feet square ; a glass house, of the same size ; and a greenhouse,
twelve feet wide, and forty feet long. From the open side of the cov-
ered shed, three parallel railways extend sixty feet on to the grounds.
Within the shed are turn-tables and tracks, which lead into the glass
house ; and altogether they furnish a very convenient method of trans-
porting the plants under investigation to and from the open air. This
system of connecting shed and glass houses and photographic studio by
1 82 THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
means of railways is modelled upon a plan used by Dr. Hellriesgel, at
Beruburg, Germany. The building was designed, in conformity with
special instructions, by E. A. Ellsworth of Holyoke, a graduate of the
College. It is maintained by a portion of the funds of the Hatch Experi-
Following the college road as it turns again in the direction of the
town, the dwelling-house at the right is the home of the professor of
horticulture. Beyond is the
Botanic Museum of the College, built in 1866, at a cost of $5180.
It is a two-story frame structure, 43 by 45 feet, and was one of the four
buildings erected about the time of the opening of the College. On the
first floor is a laboratory and recitation room. On the floor above is the
Knowlton Herbarium, collected by W. W. Denslow of New York, of fifteen
thousand species, one of the finest collections in the country. A large
collection of native woods, and fifty specimens of wood from the Hima-
laya Mountains, made by the celebrated travellers, the Von Schlagentwelt
brothers, are also kept in this room. One of the most interesting
objects in the room is a cast of a mammoth squash, grown in the plant
house in 1873, which actually lifted, in the course of its growing, a weight
equal to forty-five hundred pounds, and for some days after an accidental
cracking of the shell supported five thousand pounds. The office of the
college treasurer is in this building, his hours being from four to five
o'clock one or two afternoons of each week.
The neighboring stable was built in 1885 for the use of the horti-
cultural department of the College, cost $1500, and is conveniently
arranged for the use of the department.
The President's House, on the hill-side, was built in 1884 for the
use of President Greenough, and cost $11,500. It is still the property
of the College, and occupied as a residence by W. P. Brooks, professor
On the land between this building and the stable, the horticultural
department makes experiments in growing small fruits and berries. A
fine vineyard is at the north of the president's house, and a large peach
orchard and a nursery at the east. These contain many of the finest
varieties of vines and trees, which are cultivated entirely for experiment.
The Durfee Plant House, a gift of the late Dr. Nathan Durfee of
Fall River, at one time treasurer of the College, was built in 1868 at an
expense of $12,000. On January 23, 1883, the house was partially
BOTANIC MUSEUM AND PLANT HOUSE.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
destroyed by fire, but was immediately rebuilt, and is now valued the
same as originally. The main house consists of an octagon, 40 feet in
diameter, and two wings each 60 feet long and 30 wide. A workroom
in the rear of the octagon communicates with two parallel pits each 50
feet long. A small wing, 24 by 16 feet, opens from the northeast corner
of the octagon. The main house contains many types of plants for
illustration and educational purposes. These are provided from the
income of a $10,000 fund, the gift of the late Leonard M. Hills and his
son Henry F. Hills, of Amherst. The pits and the small wing are used
for growing marketable plants and flowers.
The Greenhouse of the Hatch Experiment Station was constructed in
the fall of 1888, after special plans devised by Professor S. T. Maynard,
the head of the horticultural division. Completely fitted, it cost $2800,
and is designed for experiments in plant-growing, with different methods
of heating. There is a main room, containing the heatingapparatus,
and two parallel greenhouses of exactly the same size and construction,
extending from the south side. One of them is heated by steam, and
1 88 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
the other by hot water. Valuable investigations are made here each
winter, and the results widely published.
The grounds at the south of this group of buildings is used by the
horticultural department for experiments in fruit and ornamental tree-
culture. The farmhouse on the opposite side of the road is one of the
buildings bought with the land at the time of the establishment of the
College. The small building at the left is the
Insectary of the entomological department of the Hatch Experi-
ment Station, built in 1889. The expense of its construction, $2000,
was met by the Agricultural College and the Massachusetts Society for
the Promotion of Agriculture. The investigations of this department
relate to the life and habits of insects injurious to vegetation, and are
under the direction of the State entomologist, Professor Charles H.
Fernald. The building is a story and a half high, 28 by 20 feet
in area, and has adjoining it a greenhouse 30 feet long and 18
wide. The ground-floor contains the entomologist's office, a labora-
tory, and an "insecticide room," where the various compounds for
killing insects are tested. The laboratory occupies the entire half of
the floor adjoining the greenhouse. This latter is divided into a hot
room and a cold room, which are used for breeding insects. In the
cellar of the main house are vaults for wintering such insects as may be
under investigation. It was in this building that the extended investiga-
tions of the gypsy moth, for the destruction of which the State has
expended much money, were first made. The department is constantly
receiving queries from all over the country, principally this State, how-
ever, in regard to the destruction of common and injurious insects.
NOTEWORTHY BUSINESS FIRMS.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
THE PROPER DRESS!
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latest styles. We are direct importers, and cater
especially to students, doing the largest student
trade of any strictly fine firm in the country.
FRANK D. SOMERS, Tailor,
5 Park Street - - - Boston.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST.
SHREVE, GR^MP ^ Low
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L. HABERSTROH & SON,
DECORATORS AND PAINTERS,
9 PARK STREET, CORNER BEACON STREET, - - BOSTON, MASS.
THE HANDBOOK OF AM H ERST. 193
DEAN, WHEELOCK & CO.,
Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
ARTISTIC PAPER HANGINGS and CEILING DECORATIONS.
LEADS, OILS, VARNISHES, AND PAINTERS' SUPPLIES.
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* Caterer ar?d * <?oi?feetior?er
ii and 13 TEMPLE PLACE, BOSTON, MASS.
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Board, $4.00 per week. A few Good Rooms to rent.
CORRESPONDENCE PROMPTLY ANSWERED.
MAPLE AVENUE, AMHERST.
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Repairing promptly done on Guns, Pistols, Umbrellas, Parasols,
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No. 445 MAIN STREET, Opposite Court Square.
194 THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
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JUST PUBLISHED ENTIRELY NEW.
sues of 1864, '79
and as a distinguishing title, bears the name of
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Editorial work upon this revision has been in
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THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 195
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PH.D. (Amherst), for eigHt years Master in
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196 THE HANDBOOK OF AM HER ST.
EQUITABLE MORTGAGE COMPANY.
Capital subscribed $2,000,000.00 Surplus and undivided profits.. ..$496,716.85
Paid in (Cash) 1,000,000.00 Assets 11,168,685.04
This Company solicits correspondence about all first-class investments. Buys and negotiates
Municipal, Railroad, Water, Industrial, and Irrigation Bonds. Issues its debentures and negotiates
mortgage loans. CHARLES N. FOWLER, President.
New York, 208 Broadway. London, England. Kansas City, Missouri.
Philadelphia, 4th and Chestnut Sts. Boston, 117 Devonshire St. Berlin, Germany.
Represented by EDWARD B. MARSH, Amherst, Mass.
JAMES P. PAGE,
Boots, Shoes, and Rubbers.
* CHARLES DEUEL, a
DRUGS, MEDICINES, AND CHEMICALS,
AMHERST HOUSE BLOCK.
Tooth, Hair, and Nail Brushes ; Toilet and Fancy Articles ; Perfumery and Sponges.
Cigars, Cigarettes, and Tobacco. A Fine Assortment of Fresh Candies.
-8 PRESCRIPTION BUSINESS ESPECIALLY SOLICITED. &-
TRY DEUEL'S TOOTH POWDER.
jfjNE flftdSIGAL (pQOBS
* * CUSHMAN'S * MUSIC * STORES, *
AMHERST AND NORTHAMPTON.
E. J. STEVES,
CONTRACTOR and BUILDER,
PLEASANT STREET, AMHERST.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST. 197
FOB ABSOLUTELY EVERYTHING IN THE WAY OF
Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments,
CATALOGUES, LISTS, DESCRIPTIONS, OR THE THING ITSELF, TO
OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, BOSTON.
TO ANY PART OF THE WORLD.
THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST.
HANDSOMELY PRINTED AND BOUND. PROFUSELY
A guide to Amherst, and the surrounding charms
of the Connecticut Valley, to Amherst College, and
to the Massachusetts Agricultural College.
Will be mailed, carefiilly packed in a heavy envelope,
and protected by metal " corners" on
receipt of $1.10.
Address the maker and publisher,
FREDERICK H. HITCHCOCK,
A SINGLE COPY AT ANY BOOKSTORE, $1.00.
14 DAY USE
RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED
This book is due on the last date stamped below, or
on the date to which renewed.
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.
PEC 1| 1958
SENT ON ILL.
APR 3 1995
University of California